Name: Gleb Derujinsky
Birth place: New York, U.S.
Birth date: 19 March 1925
Death place: Durango, Colorado, U.S.
Death Date: 9 June 2011
Languages: Russian, French, English
Gleb Derujinsky (19 March 1925 – 9 June 2011) was an American fashion photographer. He worked for Esquire, Look, Life, Glamour, Town and Country and The New York Times Magazine, before shooting extensively for Harper’s Bazaar. Eileen Ford, founder of Ford Models agency, described him as an “early visionary on a path that others were to follow”.
Gleb Derujinsky was born in New York City in 1925, and named after his father Gleb W. Derujinsky, an immigrant of Russian nobility who became a successful sculptor. The Derujinsky family served the Russian tsars as far back as Peter the Great, and relatives include the composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and the painter Mikhail Vrubel.
Derujinsky’s mother, the classical pianist Alexandra Micholoff Derujinsky, died in the late 1950s.
Derujinsky’s first languages were Russian and French, and he went on to learn English while enrolled at the Trinity School in New York.
In 1942, Derujinsky became a corporal in the army and stayed until after the end of World War II. His language abilities and negotiation skills contributed to his being promoted to Staff Sergeant halfway through his tours, and learned Morse Code in just 30 days
Upon his return to New York City, he opened his first photography studio with his veteran loan. By February 1948, he landed his first cover with Collier’s magazine. Shortly thereafter, he began working for Harper’s Bazaar Jr., an offshoot of Harper’s Bazaar aimed towards college-age women that became a supplement of Harper’s Bazaar. Derujinsky was retained as a freelance photographer, working alongside Richard Avedon, Lillian Bassman, and Louise Dahl-Wolfe for editors Carmel Snow and Diana Vreeland and art director Alexey Brodovitch.
Citing the great photographer Horst P. Horst as a key influence, Derujinsky photographed the Paris Spring collections from 1953-1963 and was known for his outlandish ideas and travel images taken in remote locations all over the world at time when travel, especially by air, was far from common.
Derujinsky also freelanced for Look Magazine, Town and Country, The New York Times Magazine, Ladies’ Home Journal, Esquire, Glamour, Seventeen, Life, and Good Housekeeping.
Working extensively with Carmen Dell’Orefice and his then-wife Ruth Neumann-Derujinsky, his work also featured many of the era’s top models, from Jean Patchett and Jean Shrimpton, to Nena Von Schlebrügge and Iris Bianchi.
“It’s a tribute to Gleb Derujinsky that his best photographs for Harper’s Bazaar could be mistaken for Avedons. He spun narratives of Parisian chic and New York joie de vivre that have lost not a bit of their charm.”
Gleb Derujinsky, l'œil de la mode
Glenda Bailey, rédactrice en chef, Harper’s Bazaar.
«Je n’ai jamais confondu ses photos avec celles d’ Avedon ou qui que ce soit d’autre. Le style de Gleb était indubitablement personnel. […]
Il n’avait besoin de copier personne. Il avait sa propre vision et connaissait son équipement. Il avait sa manière à lui de voir la lumière et l’environnement.
Avec lui, j’avais le sentiment de faire partie d’une vision sortie de son esprit et qu’il réalisait dans une photographie.»
Carmen Dell’Orefice, mannequin.
Ennio Morricone was born in Rome on Nov. 10, 1928, and started composing film music in his early 30s, Among his best-known compositions are those for Sergio Leone's The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) and Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), Roland Joffé's The Mission (1986), Brian De Palma's The Untouchables (1987), Giuseppe Tornatore's Cinema Paradiso(1988) and Steve Zissou's The Life Aquatic (2004).
In more than half decade, Ennio has composed for more 500 films and tv series, as well as standalone concertos. In an interview conducted in 1984, he was asked about his favorite music score and theme, but he said it was very hard to say, every one of them was like his daughter, but he did admit the most difficult one he ever worked on was the music score for The Red Rock, and he thought the most beautiful one was for Once Upon a Time in the West.
This same mismatchedness happened for the films of other genres he worked for, such as French Policier film Le Professionnel in 1981, a film of corruption and violence. The music were so beautiful and out of this world, they should be used in Epic film of nature like Luc Besson's Le Gran Bleu instead of Le Professionnel. In particular the music score Le vent, le cri.
Only in a few tv series like Marco Polo (1982), films like The Mission (1986), Cinema Paradiso (1988) as well as Malena (2000), both directed by Giuseppe Tornatore, it seemed the soul of his music and that of the film found each other.
Ennio Morricone was born in Rome on 10 Nov.,1928, and started composing film music in his early 30s, Among his best-known compositions are those for Sergio Leone's The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) and Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), Roland Joffé's The Mission (1986), Brian De Palma's The Untouchables (1987), Giuseppe Tornatore's Cinema Paradiso(1988) and Steve Zissou's The Life Aquatic (2004).
In more than half century, Ennio has composed for more 500 films and tv series, as well as standalone concertos. In an interview conducted in 1984, he was asked about his favorite music score and theme, but he said it was very hard to say, every one of them was like his daughter, but he did admit the most difficult one he ever worked on was the music score for The Red Rock, and he thought the most beautiful one was for Once Upon a Time in the West.
Name: Cecil Beaton
birth place: London England
birth date: 14 January 1904
zodiac sign: Capricorn
death place: Wiltshire England
death date: 18 January 1980
Profile of Cecil Beaton
Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton CBE (14 January 1904 – 18 January 1980) was an English fashion, portrait and war photographer, diarist, painter, interior designer and an Oscar–winning stage and costume designer for films and the theatre.
When Beaton was growing up his nanny had a Kodak 3A Camera, a popular model which was renowned for being an ideal piece of equipment to learn on. Beaton's nanny began teaching him the basics of photography and developing film. He would often get his sisters and mother to sit for him. When he was sufficiently proficient, he would send the photos off to London society magazines, often writing under a pen name and ‘recommending’ the work of Beaton.
Beaton attended Harrow School, and then, despite having little or no interest in academia, moved on to St John's College, Cambridge, and studied history, art and architecture. Beaton continued his photography, and through his university contacts managed to get a portrait depicting the Duchess of Malfi published in Vogue. It was actually George "Dadie" Rylands – "a slightly out-of-focus snapshot of him as Webster's Duchess of Malfi standing in the sub-aqueous light outside the men's lavatory of the ADC Theatre at Cambridge."
Since 1927, Cecil Beaton started to work for American Vogue regularly and he is known for his fashion photographs and society portraits. Besides working as staff photographer for Vogue and Vanity Fair he also photographed celebrities in Hollywood.
In the 1930s, Cecil Beaton returned to England, where he became leading war photographer with the recommendation of the Queen, and also the photographer of the royal family on many occasions, including Duke and duchess of Windsor's wedding.
After the war, Beaton tackled the Broadway stage, designing sets, costumes, and lighting for a 1946 revival of Lady Windermere's Fan, in which he also acted.
His costumes for Lerner and Loewe's My Fair Lady (1956) were highly praised. This led to two Lerner and Loewe film musicals, Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964), each of which earned Beaton the Academy Award for Best Costume Design. He also designed the period costumes for the 1970 film On a Clear Day You Can See Forever.
Cecil Beaton was knighted in the 1972 New Year Honours.
Two years later he suffered a stroke that would leave him permanently paralysed on the right side of his body. Although he learnt to write and draw with his left hand, and had cameras adapted, Beaton became frustrated by the limitations the stroke had put upon his work. As a result of his stroke, Beaton became anxious about financial security for his old age and, in 1976, entered into negotiations with Philippe Garner, expert-in-charge of photographs at Sotheby's. On behalf of the auction house, Garner acquired Beaton's archive—excluding all portraits of the Royal Family, and the five decades of prints held by Vogue in London, Paris and New York. Garner, who had almost singlehandedly invented the photographic auction, oversaw the archive's preservation and partial dispersal, so that Beaton's only tangible assets, and what he considered his life's work, would ensure him an annual income. The first of five auctions was held in 1977, the last in 1980.
By the end of the 1970s, Beaton's health had faded. He died on 18 January 1980, at Reddish House, his home in Broad Chalke, Wiltshire, four days after his 76th birthday
name: Antonio Canova
birth place: Possagno, Republic of Venice
birth date: 1 November 1757
zodiac sign: Scopio
death place: Venice, Lombardy-Venetia
death date: 13 October 1822
Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. Often regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists, his artwork was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival, but avoided the melodramatics of the former, and the cold artificiality of the latter.
In 1757, Antonio Canova was born in the Venetian Republic city of Possagno to Pietro Canova, a stonecutter. In 1761, his father died. A year later, his mother remarried. As such, in 1762, he was put into the care of his paternal grandfather Pasino Canova, who was a stonemason, owner of a quarry, and was a "sculptor who specialised in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style". He led Antonio into the art of sculpting.
At the age of nine, he executed two small shrines of Carrara marble, which are still extant, and appears to have been constantly employed under his grandfather.
In 1770, he started his apprenticeship first with Giuseppe Bernardi, then with Giovanni Ferrari until he began his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia. At the Academy, he won several prizes and was given his first workshop within a monastery by some local monks.
During this time, Antonio Canova started to receive from the Venetian elite and he opened his own studio at Calle Del Traghetto at S. Maurizio in 1779.
Canova arrived in Rome, on 28 December 1780, and spent his time studying and sketching the works of Michelangelo.
Between 1783 – 1785, Canova arranged, composed, and designed a funerary monument dedicated to Clement XIV for the Church of Santi Apostoli. It was finished in 1787 and secured Canova's reputation as the pre-eminent living artist.
Antonio Canova systematically promoted his reputation by publishing engravings of his works and having marble versions of plaster casts made in his workshop, and by1800, Antonio Canova was the most celebrated artist in Europe.
He became so successful that he had acquired patrons from across Europe including France, England, Russia, Poland, Austria and Holland, as well as several members from different royal lineages, and prominent individuals.
Among his patrons were Napoleon and his family, for whom Canova produced much work, including several depictions between 1803 and 1809. The most notable representations were that of Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker, and Venus Victrix which was portrayal of Pauline Bonaparte.
In 1802, Canova was assigned the post of 'Inspector-General of Antiquities and Fine Art of the Papal State', a position formerly held by Raphael. One of his activities in this capacity was to pioneer the restoration of the Appian Way by restoring the tomb of Servilius Quartus. In 1808 Canova became an associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands.
In 1815, he was named 'Minister Plenipotentiary of the Pope,'and was tasked with recovering various works of art that were taken to Paris by Napoleon.
In 1816, Canova returned to Rome with some of the art Napoleon had taken. He was rewarded with several marks of distinction: he was appointed President of the Accademia di San Luca, inscribed into the "Golden Book of Roman Nobles" by the Pope's own hands, and given the title of Marquis of Ischia, alongside an annual pension of 3000 crowns.
At the end of the decade, Canova decided to build a personified statue of Religion and a temple to house it. He designed, financed, and partly built the structure, a combination of the Parthenon and the Pantheon in Possagno, his birth place.
On 11 July 1819, Canova laid the foundation stone for Tempio Canoviano, dressed in red Papal uniform and decorated with all his medals, and he would continue to supersize the construction of Tempio Canoviano until the end of his life by regularly going back to Possagno.
The temple was first opened in 1830, and finally completed in 1836.
On 13 October 1822, Antonio Canova died in Venice at the age of 64. Before his death, he has instructed his brother to use his entire estate to complete the Tempio Canoviano in Possagno.
On 25 October 1822, his body was placed in the Tempio Canoviano. His heart was interred at the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice, and his right hand preserved in a vase at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia.
His memorial service was so grand that it rivalled the ceremony that the city of Florence held for Michelangelo in 1564.
Shigeru Umebayashi is a Japanese composer. Once the leader of Japan's new wave rock band EX, Shigeru Umebayashi began scoring films in 1985 when the band broke up. He has more than 30 Japanese and Chinese films to his credit.
In 1991, Shigeru Umebayashi scored for Japanese director Seijun Suzuki's biopic film about Japanese painter and poet Takehisa Yumeji Yumeji), one of the scores "Yumeji's Theme" was later included in Hongkong director Wong Kar-wai's film In the Mood for Love (2000), and this track became his best known work in the world.
Umebayashi not only scored most of Wong Kar-wai's follow-up film, such as his film 2046 in 2004, and Grandmaster in 2013, but also worked with many other directors both in China and Japan, such as Chinese Director Zhang Yi mo for his 2004 film House of Flying Daggers.
In 2009, Umebayashi scored for Tom Ford directorial debut A single man, together with several other composers including polish composer Abel Korzeniowski
Itsuka Darekaga Korosareru (1984)
Tomoyo Shizukani Nemure (1985)
Shinshi Domei (1986)
Kyohu no Yacchan (1987)
Getting Blue in Color (1988)
Hong Kong Paradise (1990)
Arihureta Ai ni Kansuru Chosa (1992)
Byoin he Iko 2 Yamai ha Kikara (1992)
Nemuranai Machi Shinjuku Zame (1993)
Izakaya Yurei (1994)
Zero Woman (1995)
Boxer Joe (1995)
Kitanai Yatsu (1995)
Hashirana Akan Yoake Made (1995)
The Christ of Nanjing (1995)
Shin Gokudo Kisha (1996)
Izakaya Yurei 2 (1996)
Ichigo Domei (1997)
Isana no Umi (1997)
Watashitachi ga Sukidatta Koto (1997)
G4 Option Zero (1997)
Belle Epoch (1998)
2000 A.D. (2000)
In the Mood for Love (2000)
Midnight Fly (2001)
Hikari no Ame (2001)
Zhou Yu's Train (2002)
Onmyoji II (2003)
Floating Land Scape (2003)
House of Flying Daggers (2004)
Curse of the Golden Flower (2006)
Hannibal Rising (2007)
Tears for Sale (2008)
The Real Shaolin (2008)
True Legend (2010)
Days of Grace (2011)
The Grandmaster (2013)
Rise of the Legend (2014)
The Bride (2015)
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: Sword of Destiny (2016)
The Wasted Times (2016)
Selected film scores
1991, Yumeji directed by Seijun Suzuki
2000, In the mood for love (Faa yeung nin wa, original title) directed by Wong Kar-wai
2004, House of daggers directed by Zhang yi mo
2009, A single man directed by Tom Ford
Biography of Horst P. Horst
Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann (Aka. Horst P. Horst) was born on 14 August 1906 in Weißenfels-an-der-Saale, Germany in a well-to-do protestant family.
In his teens, Horst met dancer Evan Weidemann at the home of his aunt, and this aroused his interest in avant-garde art. In the late 1920s, Horst studied at Hamburg Kunstgewerbeschule, leaving there in 1930 to go to Paris to study under the architect Le Corbusier.
In 1930 Horst met Vogue photographer Baron George Hoyningen-Huene, a half-Baltic, half-American nobleman in Paris, and became his photographic assistant, occasional model, and lover. He traveled to England with Baron Hoyningen-Huene that winter and visited photographer Cecil Beaton, who was working for the British edition of Vogue.
In 1931, Horst began his association with Vogue, publishing his first photograph in the French edition of Vogue in December of that year. It was a full-page advertisement showing a model in black velvet holding a Klytia scent bottle in one hand with the other hand raised elegantly above it... Horst´s real breakthrough as a published fashion and portrait photographer was in the pages of British Vogue starting with the 30 March 1932 issue showing three fashion studies and a full page portrait of the daughter of Sir James Dunn, the art patron and supporter of Surrealism.
Horst´s first exhibition took place at La Plume d'Or in Paris in 1932. It was reviewed by Janet Flanner in The New Yorker, and this review, which appeared after the exhibition ended, made Horst instantly prominent. Horst made a portrait of Bette Davis the same year, the first in a series of public figures he would photograph during his career. Within two years, he had photographed Noël Coward, Yvonne Printemps, Lisa Fonssagrives, Count Luchino Visconti di Madrone, Duke Fulco di Verdura, Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg, Princess Natalia Pavlovna Paley, Daisy Fellowes, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, Cole Porter, Elsa Schiaparelli, and others like Eve Curie.
Horst rented an apartment in New York City in 1937, and while residing there met Coco Chanel, whom Horst called "the queen of the whole thing". He would photograph her fashions for three decades.
He met Valentine Lawford, British diplomat in 1938, and they lived together until Lawford's death in 1991. They adopted and raised a son, Richard J. Horst, together.
In 1939, Horst P. Horst took "The Mainbocher Corset" for French Vogue, with its erotically charged mystery, it would become one of the most iconic photoes of 20 Century. Designers like Donna Karan continue to use "The Mainbocher Corset" as an inspiration for their outerwear collections. Horst´s work frequently reflects his interest in surrealism and his regard of the ancient Greek ideal of physical beauty.
On October 21 1941, Horst received his United States citizenship as Horst P. Horst. He became an Army photographer, with much of his work printed in the forces' magazine Belvoir Castle. In 1945, he photographed United States President Harry S. Truman, with whom he became friends, and he photographed every First Lady in the post-war period at the invitation of the White House.
In 1947, Horst moved into his house in Oyster Bay, New York. He designed the white stucco-clad building himself, the design inspired by the houses that he had seen in Tunisia during his relationship with Hoyningen-Huene.
Horst is best known for his photographs of women and fashion, one of his most famous portraits is of Marlene Dietrich, taken in 1942. She protested the lighting that he had selected and arranged, but he used it anyway. Dietrich liked the results and subsequently used a photo from the session in her own publicity.
As a versatile photographer, Horst P. Horst is also recognized for his photographs of interior architecture, still lifes, especially ones including plants, and environmental portraits.
Horst´s method of work typically entailed careful preparation for the shoot, with the lighting and studio props (of which he used many) arranged in advance. His instructions to models are remembered as being brief and to the point. His published work uses lighting to pick out the subject; he frequently used four spotlights, often one of them pointing down from the ceiling. Only rarely do his photos include shadows falling on the background of the set. Horst rarely, if ever, used filters. While most of his work is in black & white, much of his color photography includes largely monochromatic settings to set off a colorful fashion. Horst's color photography did include documentation of society interior design, well noted in the volume Horst Interiors. He photographed a number of interiors designed by Robert Denning and Vincent Fourcade of Denning & Fourcade and often visited their homes in Manhattan and Long Island. After making the photograph, Horst generally left it up to others to develop, print, crop, and edit his work.
In the 1960s, encouraged by Vogue editor Diana Vreeland, Horst began a series of photos illustrating the lifestyle of international high society which included people like: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Duke of Windsor and Duchess of Windsor, Consuelo Vanderbilt, Marella Agnelli, Gloria Guinness, Baroness Pauline de Rothschild and Baron Philippe de Rothschild, Yves Saint Laurent, Comtesse Jacqueline de Ribes, Lee Radziwill, Helen of Greece and Denmark, Baroness Geoffroy de Waldner, Princess Tatiana of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, Peregrine Eliot, 10th Earl of St Germans and Lady Jacquetta Eliot, Countess of St Germans, Antenor Patiño, Oscar de la Renta and Françoise de Langlade, Desmond Guinness and Princess Henriette Marie-Gabrielle von Urach, Andy Warhol, Nancy Lancaster, Doris Duke, Emilio Pucci, Cy Twombly, Amanda Burden, Paloma Picasso.
The articles were written by the photographer's longtime companion, Valentine Lawford. From this point until nearly the time of his death, Horst spent most of his time traveling and photographing.
In the mid 1970s, while keeping his work with Vogue, including its Italian, French, British editions, Horst began working also for House & Garden magazine, Vogue´s sister publication, touring around the world. But he dedicated more of his time to writing books and exhibiting his photography.
Horst's last photograph for British Vogue was in 1991 with Princess Michael of Kent, shown against a background of tapestry and wearing a tiara belonging to her mother-in-law, Princess Marina, who he had photographed in 1934.
Horst P. Horst died at his home in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida at 93 years of age.
Horst Portraits: 60 Years of Style 1st Edition
by Terence Pepper (Author), Horst P. Horst (Author), Charles Saumarez Smith (Author)
Horst's photographic career spanned from 1931 to 1991. The son of a hardware store owner in eastern Germany, Horst found his way to Paris, where he became the assistant to George Hoyningen-Huene, chief photographer for Paris Vogue. Largely self-taught, Horst began publishing fashion photos in Vogue fewer than two years later and eventually established the style of sophisticated posing and dramatic lighting that would make him famous. In this book, published to accompany an exhibit that originated at the National Portrait Gallery and is currently at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Pepper (curator of photographs at the National Portrait Gallery) and Muir (former picture editor for British Vogue) offer Horst's images of the leading figures in the arts, movies, and society that have become the very pictures most often associated with these famous faces. Included are portraits of Noel Coward, Cecil Beaton, Katharine Hepburn, Gertrude Stein, Salvador Dali, and others, as well as many famous fashion models. A biographical essay traces Horst's life and influences. Notes on the plates describe the sitter, photographic session, and other interesting details that enrich the images.
Hardcover – November 1, 1993
by Barbara Plumb (Author)
Since the 1950s, interior design photographer Horst has had unmatched access to the private homes of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, Oscar de la Renta, Andy Warhol, Yves St. Laurent, and Palamo Picasso. A unique insider's view of the rooms inhabited by the elite of America and Europe. 200 color photos.
Around That Time: Horst at Home in Vogue
Hardcover – October 4, 2016
by Valentine Lawford (Author), Ivan Shaw (Author), Hamish Bowles (Author)
Vogue’s Book of Houses, Gardens, People (1968) was a landmark publication among decorating books, and it chronicles an important chapter in the history of Vogue. Vogue’s Horst P. Horst, a leading fashion photographer of his time, developed an intense interest in seeing the world’s great homes and meeting their owners; beginning in the early 1960s, he journeyed in an elite world that would soon be lost. With accompanying lyrical essays about homes and their occupants by the famed writer Valentine Lawford (Horst’s partner in work and life), the book is a virtual who’s who of society, politics, and the arts in the mid-20th century. Around That Time showcases much of the material featured in the original book, plus never-before-seen photographs from those homes as well as images from additional homes Horst shot well into the 1980s.
Horst: Sixty Years of Photography
Hardcover – July 15, 1991
by Martin Kazmaier (Author), Host P. Horst (Photographer)
Celebrated Vogue fashion photographer Horst P. Horst defines an attitude, a genre, with his studies of women--icons of elegance, unattainable goddesses--captured with calm detachment. This tony tribute to the work of the German-born, New York-based photographer is studded with portraits of figures from 1930s' Paris--Coco Chanel, Gertrude Stein, Cole Porter, Janet Flanner, etc. The book includes a multitude of portraits--many predictable, others revealing--of luminaries such as W. H. Auden, Truman Capote, Katherine Hepburn, Andy Warhol, Calvin Klein, Brooke Shields, Harry Truman, the Duchess of Windsor. Horst's still lifes and stagey fashion ads often border on kitsch, but every so often he turns out a strong, original beauty like the raindrop-stained Still life with Tulips (1950), radiant, sincere and gorgeous. Kazmaier is a German dramatist and photography critic.
Websites and Articles:
Uemura Shōen (上村 松園, April 23, 1875 – August 27, 1949) was the pseudonym of an important artist in Meiji, Taishō and early Shōwa period Japanese painting.
Her real name was Uemura Tsune. Shōen was known primarily for her bijin-ga paintings of beautiful women in the nihonga style, although she produced numerous works on historical themes and traditional subjects.
Shōen was born in Shimogyō-ku, Kyoto, as the second daughter of a tea merchant. She was born two months after the death of her father and, thus, grew up with her mother and aunts in an all-female household.
Her mother's tea shop attracted a refined, cultured clientele for the art of Japanese tea ceremony. As a child at age 12 (1887), Shōen drew pictures and exhibited considerable skill at drawing human figures. By the age of 15 (1890) she was exhibiting her work and winning awards in official art contests as well as commissioning work for private patrons.
Shōen became obsessed with the ukiyo-e, Japanese woodblock print, works of Hokusai. Her mother supported her decision to pursue an artistic career. This was quite unusual for the time, and although Shōen did have successful contemporaries who were female, such as Ito Shoba (1877-1968) and Kajiwara Hisako (1896-1988), women were largely still not part of the Japanese public art scene outside of Tokyo.
Shōen is considered a major innovator in the bijin-ga genre despite the fact she often still used it to depict the traditional beauty standards of women.
Bijin-ga gained criticism during the Taisho era while Shōen worked due to its lack of evolution to reflect the more modern statuses of women in Japan. During bijin-ga's conception in the Tokugawa, or Edo, period, women were regarded as lower class citizens and the genre often reflected this implication onto its female subjects. Within the Taisho era, women had made several advancements into the Japanese workforce, and artistry specifically was becoming more popular, which opened way for Shōen's success.
Shōen received many awards and forms of recognition during her lifetime within Japan, being the first female recipient of the Order of Culture award, as well as being hired as the Imperial Household's official artist, which had previously only employed one other official woman in the position.
In 1949 Uemura Shōen died of cancer just a year after receiving the Order of Culture Award.
name: Gianlorenzo Bernini
original name: Cavaliere Bernini
birth place: Naples
birth date: 7 December 1598
zodiac sign: Sagittarius
death place: Rome
death date: 28 November 1680
Biography of Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is an Italian artist, painter, sculptor, architector, inventor, he is credited to have created the Baroque style of sculpture.
While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was, also and even more prominently, the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.
As one scholar has commented, "What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful...."In addition, he was a painter (mostly small canvases in oil) and a man of the theater: he wrote, directed and acted in plays (mostly Carnival satires), for which he designed stage sets and theatrical machinery. He produced designs as well for a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches.
As architect and city planner, he designed secular buildings, churches, chapels, and public squares, as well as massive works combining both architecture and sculpture, especially elaborate public fountains and funerary monuments and a whole series of temporary structures (in stucco and wood) for funerals and festivals. His broad technical versatility, boundless compositional inventiveness and sheer skill in manipulating marble ensured that he would be considered a worthy successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation. His talent extended beyond the confines of sculpture to a consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesize sculpture, painting, and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the late art historian Irving Lavin the "unity of the visual arts".
1620s: David and Apollo
Gianlorenzo Bernini sculpted this life-sized sculpture of David for Pope Paul V’s nephew during the Counter-Reformation, when the Catholic religion was being challenged by Protestantism.
Portrayed at the moment of battle, David infringes forcefully on the viewer’s space. The sculpture captures David as he launches the stone at the giant Goliath. There is a lot of movement in this sculpture with David bending at the waist and his arms twisted to one side. David’s clothing twists dramatically around his body accentuating the power David is putting behind the stone. At his feet lays his discarded armor. His face is full of emotion and he seems more human-like, more relatable. David shows intense determination with his clenched jaw and furrowed brow. The energy and tension of David’s body activates the space around him implying the existence of an opponent.
The sculpture of Apollo and Daphne is the last of Bernini's work commissioned by the Borghese family, and remains one of his most popular sculptures. The influence of antique sculptures (Apollo of Belvedere) and of contemporary paintings (such as those by Guido Reni) are clearly seen in this masterpiece.
1647-1652: Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
« Le Bernin, ah ! le délicieux Bernin [...]. Il est puissant et exquis, une verve toujours prête, une ingéniosité sans cesse en éveil, une fécondité pleine de grâce et de magnificence ! ... »
"It pleased our Lord that I would sometimes see this vision: very close to me, on my left, an angel appeared in human form... In his hands I saw a golden spear and at the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire. With this he seemed to pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he drew it out, I thought he was drawing them out with it, and he left me utterly consumed by the great love of God.
"The pain was so sharp that it made me utter several moans; and so excessive was the sweetness caused me by this intense pain that one can never wish it to cease, nor will one's soul be content with anything less than God."
- autobiography of Saint Teresa of Avila
1648-1651: Fontana dei Quatro Fiumi (Fountain of Four Rivers)
Public fountains in Rome served multiple purposes: first, they were highly needed sources of water for neighbors in the centuries prior to home plumbing. Second, they were monuments to the papal patrons.
The circumstances of how Bernini won the commission of this public moment are described as follows in Filippo Baldinucci's The life of Cavaliere Bernini (1682):
1665: King Louis XIV
According to French diarist, a steward at the court of Louis XIV Paul Fréart de Chantelou's diary, the process of selecting suitable marble block took several days to accomplish, and the bust took just over three months to carve.
While searching for a block of marble there was some discussion with members of the court about whether or not Bernini would make a full body statue or a bust. Bernini began drawing after the marble block had been selected.
However, it seems that once he had done this initial work, Bernini chose to work only during sittings with the king. His pupil, Giulio Cartari, began work on carving down the chosen block of marble (and would later do much of the drapery work), and then Bernini took over, taking forty days to complete the work. He had hoped to have twenty sittings with the king during the final carving process, but in fact there were thirteen of around one hour each.
The bust is modelled heavily after an earlier bust that Bernini made almost a decade ago of Francesco d'Este, the duke of Modena, and other than the fact that Louis' cloak was slightly longer horizontally a person would not be able to tell that one was of higher nobility.
Bernini's son and biographer, Domenico Bernini, noted the artistic arguments of his father as to why the King agreed to sit for such a length of time, explaining that the artist preferred to work from Truth rather than rely on the unnecessary imaginative extras that would creep into working from sketches. Equally, Bernini wanted to see the king, as he did many of this other sitters, not remaining immobile, but sitting and talking in such ways that Bernini could capture all his characteristics.
Such an approach, with Bernini wishing to capture the figure in physical and psychological motion, was a common element of Bernini’s work: “mere resemblance is inadequate. One must express what goes on in the heads of heroes,” Bernini is recorded as saying. Bernini also observed the king in other locations - playing tennis, resting after lunch, or simply walking around court.
Art historian and biographer of artists Filippo Baldinucci records numerous events that advertise Bernini’s supposed influence on French culture, including one incident where Bernini rearranged the King’s hair to give greater exposure to the King’s brow - the new stye was apparently followed by all at the French court, and became known as the Bernini modification. Contemporary art historians are sceptical of this however; Jeanne Zarucchi claims that the alteration was deliberate, altering the shape of the King's head in an unflattering manner.
But King Louis XIV's hairstyle apart, what if Gianlorenzo had tried harder to please the Sun King? What if the Great Bernini had designed Louvre?
birth place: London England
birth date: 27 November 1853
zodiac sign: Sagittarius
death place: London England
death date: 17 October 1928
Sir Francis Bernard Dicksee (or Frank Bernard Dicksee) was an English Victorian painter and illustrator, best known for his pictures of dramatic literary, historical, and legendary scenes. He also was a noted painter of portraits of fashionable women, which helped to bring him success in his own time.
Francis Bernard Dicksee was born at a time when the first wave of Pre-Raphaelitism was beginning to make its presence felt in Britain and he inherited the romantic spirit of the movement that had been founded only a stone's throw from his childhood home in the Bloomsbury area of London.. After early success with his painting of unrequited love, Harmony, he rose to be one of the most popular artists of the late 19th-century, painting in a sumptuous and dramatic style.
Dicksee's family was a veritable dynasty of artists, his father, brother, and sister Margaret were all well-known painters, but it is Francis who is best known and loved today for his Pre-Raphaelite inspired subjects.
Dicksee's father, Thomas Dicksee, was a painter who taught Frank as well as his sister Margaret from a young age. Dicksee enrolled in the Royal Academy in 1870. Amongst the visiting lecturers who trained him, were the famous senior academicians Leighton [1830-1896] and Millais [1829-1896]. Dicksee was a star student, earning many distinctions and medals.
Like many other artists of the day his early career was largely spent in book illustration, as well as some stained glass window design. He started exhibiting at the RA in the mid 1870s, and also exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, though his real base was always the Academy. Dicksee made his reputation with Harmony, exhibited at the Academy in 1877, and bought by the Chantry Bequest.
Many of his pictures were of dramatic historical and legendary scenes. He also was a noted painter of elegant, highly-finished portraits of fashionable women, which of course helped to bring him material success.
He also painted landscapes. Dicksee lived in St John's Wood, and remained a bachelor. He was, of course, one of the nineteenth century artists who outlived his time, and was, to his credit, very unhappy with developments in the early twentieth century. Rather surprisingly, Dicksee was elected President of the Royal Academy in 1924, fulfilling the role with panache and tact. Physically he was a tall, good-looking, patrician figure, with a charming easy-going manner. Like his predecessor but one Edward Poynter [1836-1919], the traditional orientation of his art gradually isolated him from the artistic mainstream of the day.
He was knighted in 1925, and named to the Royal Victorian Order by King George V in 1927.
In 1921 Dicksee exhibited at the first exhibition of the Society of Graphic Art in London.
Dicksee painted The Funeral of a Viking (1893; Manchester Art Gallery), which was donated in 1928 by Arthur Burton in memory of his mother to the Corporation of Manchester. Victorian critics gave it both positive and negative reviews, for its perfection as a showpiece and for its dramatic and somewhat staged setting, respectively. The painting was used by Swedish Viking/Black metal band Bathory for the cover of their 1990 album, Hammerheart.
A book on Frank Dicksee's life and work with a full catalogue of his known paintings and drawings by Simon Toll was published by Antique Collector's Club in 2016.
Title: Frank Dicksee:1853-1928: His art and life
Author: Simon Toll
Websites and articles
Georges de Feure (real name Georges Joseph van Sluÿters, 6 September 1868 – 26 November 1943) was a French painter, theatrical designer, and industrial art designer in the symbolism and Art Nouveau styles.
De Feure was born in Paris. His father was an affluent Dutch architect, and his mother was Belgian.
In the 70s, the family had to move to the Netherlands due to the Franco-Prussian war, and they were back to Paris in the 80s.
In 1886, de Feure was one of the eleven students admitted at the Rijkscademievoor Beeldende Kunsten(Royal Academy of Arts) in Amsterdam, but he left for Paris in 1889 since he felt that formal academic training had nothing to offer him. Being of very independent nature, de Feure never again took up formal artistic studies, and forged his own independent path.
Georges de Feure lived in Montmarte, and became part of the bohemian community. Later he would become friend of Claude Debussy, Erik Satie and Maurice Ravel.
His main subject was woman, not any woman in particular, but woman as an ideal, as an existence, beautiful yet anxious, sometimes he even put them in menacing environment to show their anxiety.
In 1890, Georges was recognised by French painter Puvis de Chavannes as one of the most important painters of French Symbolism movement.
« un des ensembles décoratifs les plus exquis et parfaits que notre époque ait créés »
From 1900, the career of the artist took a different direction. Samuel Bing (1838-1905), founder of the House of Art Nouveau, asked him to design the facade of the Pavilion of Art Nouveau at l'Exposition Universelle de 1900 and later also some part of the interiors as well as some furniture. This is the beginning of a fruitful collaboration, Georges de Feure would design not only furniture but also vases and jewellery.
Afterwards, Georges de Feure also worked for newspapers, created theatre designs for Le Chat Noir cabaret and posters.
In August 1901, de Feure was nominated Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur for his contribution to the decorative arts.
In 1903, there held a retrospective exhibition in Paris of Georges de Feure, and after that he went to Hambourg and La Haye.
During the first 10 years of 20th century, he continued his decorative design, and his style slowly evolved from Art Nouveau to that of Art Deco.
During the First World War, he moved to London where he designed costumes and set for the theatres.
In the 1920s, he was artistic adviser for the shops of French haute couturiere Madeleine Vionnet.
In 1943, Georges de Feure died in poverty at the age of 75 years in the occupied Paris.