Eldred Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an American actor. He was one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Peck among 25 Greatest Male Stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema, ranking him at No. 12.
After studying at the Neighborhood Playhouse with Sanford Meisner, he began appearing in stage productions, acting in over fifty plays and three Broadway productions. Peck first gained critical success in The Keys of the Kingdom (1944) which earned him his first Academy Award nomination. He starred in a series of successful films, including romantic-drama The Valley of Decision (1944), Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945), and family film The Yearling (1946).
Peck reached global recognition in the 1950s and 1960s, appearing back-to-back in the book-to-film adaptation of Captain Horatio Hornblower (1951) and biblical drama David and Bathsheba (1951), as well as in Roman Holiday (1953) co starring Audrey Hepburn, which earned Peck a Golden Globe award.
He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird (1962), an adaptation of the modern classic of the same name which revolved around racial inequality, for which he received universal acclaim.
Peck was also active in politics and philanthropy. President Lyndon B. Johnson honored Peck with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 for his lifetime humanitarian efforts.
Peck died in his sleep from bronchopneumonia at the age of 87.
Eldred Gregory Peck was born on April 5, 1916, in La Jolla, California, to Bernice Mae (1894–1992), and Gregory Pearl Peck (1886–1962), a chemist and pharmacist. He was raised as a Catholic.
Peck's parents divorced when he was five, and he was brought up by his maternal grandmother, who took him to the movies every week. She died when he was 10, At 14, he moved back to San Diego to live with his father.
At University of Berkeley, Peck's deep, well-modulated voice gained him attention, and after participating in a public speaking course, he decided to try acting. He appeared in five plays during his senior year, including as Starbuck in Moby Dick. Peck would later say about his years at Berkeley that "it was a very special experience for me and three of the greatest years of my life. It woke me up and made me a human being."
Peck did not finish the university however, and headed to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse with the legendary acting teacher Sanford Meisner. He was often broke, and sometimes slept in Central Park.
His stage career began in 1941, when he played the secretary in George Bernard Shaw's play The Doctor's Dilemma. He made his Broadway debut as the lead in Emlyn Williams' The Morning Star in 1942. Peck's acting abilities were in high demand during World War II because he was exempted from military service, owing to a back injury suffered while receiving dance and movement lessons from Martha Graham as part of his acting training. Peck performed in a total of 50 plays, including three short-lived Broadway productions, 4–5 road tours, and summer theater.
In October 1942, Peck married Finnish-born Greta Kukkonen (1911–2008), with whom he had three sons: Jonathan (1944–1975), Stephen (b. 1946), and Carey Paul (b. 1949). They were divorced on December 31, 1955. Peck's eldest son was found dead in his home on June 26, 1975, in what authorities believed was a suicide.
After gaining stage recognition, Peck was offered his first film role, the male lead in the war-romance Days of Glory (1944), directed by Jacques Tourneur, alongside top-billed Tamara Toumanova, a Russian-born ballerina. The film lost money at the box office, disappeared from theaters quickly, and was largely dismissed by critics.
Following the release of the film, Peck gained the attention of producers, but rather than participating in the studio system, he decided to remain a freelancer with the ability to choose his roles, signing non-exclusive contracts with four studios, including an unusual dual contract with 20th Century Fox and Gone With the Wind producer David O. Selznick.
Peck won his first Academy Awards in his second movie The Keys of the Kingdom (1944) which features him as an 80-year-old Roman Catholic priest looking back at his undertakings during over half a century spent as a determined, self-sacrificing missionary in China. The film shows the character aging from his 20s to 80; Peck featured in almost every scene.The film was nominated for four Academy Awards, including the Academy Award for Best Actor.
In 1945, Peck starred in the suspense-romance Spellbound (1945) by Alfred Hitchcock, opposite Ingrid Bergman. Peck plays a man who is thought to be the new director of the psychiatric facility where Bergman's character works as a psychoanalyst, while his amnesia and disturbing visions suggest he may be a murderer.
During filming, Peck had a brief affair with Ingrid Bergman. He confessed the affair in a 1987 interview, saying: "All I can say is that I had a real love for her [Ingrid Bergman], and I think that's where I ought to stop...I was young. She was young. We were involved for weeks in close and intense work."
Released at the end of 1945, Spellbound was a hit, ranking as the third-most successful film of 1946, and was nominated for six Academy Awards including Best Picture.
In 1947, Peck co-founded The La Jolla Playhouse, at his birthplace, with Mel Ferrer and Dorothy McGuire. This summer stock company presented productions in the La Jolla High School Auditorium from 1947 until 1964. In 1983, the La Jolla Playhouse re-opened in a new home at the University of California, San Diego, where it operates today. It has attracted Hollywood film stars on hiatus, both as performers and enthusiastic supporters, since its inception.
In 1951 Peck starred in the book-to-film adaptation Captain Horatio Hornblower, featururing Peck as the commander of a warship in the British fleet during the Napoleonic Wars who finds romance with Virginia Mayo's character. He then made David and Bathsheba, a Biblical epic, which was the top-grossing movie of 1951. The two-hit-movie elevated Peck to the status of Hollywood mega-star.
Peck's "first real foray into comedy" was Roman Holiday (1953), directed by William Wyler. He portrayed American journalist Joe Bradley opposite Audrey Hepburn as a European princess in her first significant film role. Peck's role in Roman Holiday had originally been offered to Cary Grant, who turned it down because the part appeared to be more of a supporting role to the princess. Peck had the same concern, but was persuaded by Wyler that the on-site filming in Rome would be an exceptional experience, and accepted the part. It was him who insisted that Hepburn's name be above the title of the film (just beneath his) in the opening credits. Peck later stated that he had told his agent "I’m smart enough to know this girl’s going to win the Oscar in her first picture, and I’m going to look like a damned fool if her name is not up there on top with mine."
Roman Holiday was a commercial success, finishing 22nd in the box office in 1953. It was nominated for multiple accolades, including 8 Academy Awards, with Hepburn winning for Best Actress; Peck also scored a BAFTA nomination for Foreign Actor. At the 1955 Golden Globe awards, Peck and Hepburn were named the World Film Favorite Award winners for their respective genders.
After Roman Holiday, Peck was based in the United Kingdom for about 18 months between 1953 and 1955 for tax reasons. While there, Peck starred in The Million Pound Note (1954), based on a Mark Twain short story. Peck enjoyed the films production as "it was a good comedy opportunity" and "was given probably the most elegant wardrobe he had ever worn in film."
That year, Peck was named the third most popular non-British film star in the United Kingdom.
On New Year's Eve in 1955, the day after his divorce was finalized, Peck married Véronique Passani (1932–2012), a Paris news reporter who had interviewed him in 1952 before he went to Italy to film Roman Holiday. He asked her to lunch six months later, and they became inseparable. They had a son, Anthony Peck (b. 1956), and a daughter, Cecilia Peck (b. 1958).
From the 60s, besides his work as actor, Peck was active in the other side of film industry. He served as the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1967, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American Film Institute from 1967 to 1969. He has also been involved in philanthropy, serving as National Chairman of the American Cancer Society in 1966, and a member of the National Council on the Arts from 1964 to 1966.
In the 1980s, Peck moved to television, His last prominent film role came in 1991, in Other People's Money. Peck played a business owner trying to save his company against a hostile takeover bid by a Wall Street liquidator.
Peck retired from active film-making after the film.
After a movie career of five decades, Peck's own favorite film was To Kill a Mockingbird(1962), the film adaptation of Harper Lee's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name; Peck plays the part of a kind and scrupulously honest lawyer father, Atticus Finch. Peck won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance, which was his fifth and last time nominated.
Peck would later say of To Kill A Mockingbird: "My favorite film, without any question."
And his favorite co-star was Ava Gardner. He made 3 films with Gardner, the first one was The Great Sinner(1949), a period drama-romance where Peck played a Russian writer trying to help Ava Gardner and her father pay back their debt and became addicted to gambling himself. The film itself was a critical and commercial failure, but Peck ended up becoming great friend of Ava Gardner.
His another two films with Gardner were The Snows of Kilimanjaro(1952), an adaptation of a short story by Ernest Hemingway; and On the Beach(1959) based on a best-selling book.
Their friendship lasted for the rest of Ava Gardner's life, and upon her death in 1990, Peck took in both her housekeeper and her dog.
Peck spent the last years of his life touring the world doing speaking engagements in which he would show clips from his movies and take questions from the audience. He came out of retirement for a 1998 mini-series version of one of his most famous films, Moby Dick. It was his final performance, and it won him the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor in a Series, Miniseries, or Television Film.
On June 12, 2003, Peck died in his sleep from bronchopneumonia at the age of 87 at his home in Los Angeles.His wife, Veronique, was by his side.
Gregory Peck is entombed in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels mausoleum in Los Angeles.
Giovanni Boldini (31 December 1842 – 11 July 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris for most of his career. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting.
Giovanni Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting and met there other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. Their influence is seen in Boldini's landscapes which show his spontaneous response to nature, although it is for his portraits that he became best known.
Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society including Lady Holland and the Duchess of Westminster. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. He became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century, with a dashing style of painting which shows some Macchiaioli influence and a brio reminiscent of the work of younger artists, such as John Singer Sargent and Paul Helleu.
He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment. In 1897 he had a solo exhibition in New York. He participated in the Venice Biennale in 1895, 1903, 1905, and 1912.
The famous Giovanni Boldini's "Portrait of Franca Florio" was commissioned by Ignazio Florio. Boldini’s initial, beautifully provocative version, painted in 1901 was not approved of by Ignazio Florio. He reportedly found it risqué and "unnatural and unreal" looking and demanded that Boldini lengthen the dress and add full sleeves with wide black lace. Once Boldini had reworked the work to oblige his commissioner’s discontent it was exhibited at the 1903 Venice Biennial.
The portrait remained like this until 1924 when, with the demise of the Florio family’s wealth, Baron Maurice de Rothschild acquired it. Therefore, Rothschild engaged Boldini to restore it to its original sensual version. After two auction (Christie's 1995 and Sotheby's 2005), the painting has been on display at the Grand Hotel Villa Igiea in Palermo since 2006.
In 2017 it went to auction again. It is said that the necklace in the painting, with 365 pearls, one for each day of the year, was a present from the husband, begging forgiveness for his many affairs.
A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, hidden away from view on the premises that were unvisited for over 50 years. The portrait has never been listed, exhibited or published and the flat belonged to de Florian's granddaughter, who inherited the flat after her father's death in 1966 and lived in the South of France after the outbreak of the Second World War and never returned to Paris. A love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. A full-length portrait of the lady in the same clothing and accessories, but less provocative, hangs in the New Orleans Museum of Art.
The discovery of his painting in the 70-years-empty apartment forms the background to Michelle Gable's 2014 novel A Paris Apartment.
Gong Li (Chinese: 巩俐; born 31 December 1965) is a Chinese-born Singaporean actress, often regarded as the finest actress in China today. She starred in three of the four Academy Award for Best International Feature Film-nominated Chinese-language films.
Gong was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, and grew up in Jinan, Shandong. She enrolled at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing, from where she graduated in 1989. While a student at the Academy, she was spotted by director Zhang Yimou and debuted in Zhang's Red Sorghum in 1987. Gong and Zhang's professional and personal relationship received much media attention in the Chinese-speaking world, as they continued to collaborate on a string of critically acclaimed movies, including the Oscar-nominated features Ju Dou (1990) and Raise the Red Lantern (1991). For her role in the Zhang-directed The Story of Qiu Ju (1992), Gong won the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival.
Gong also starred in the Chen Kaige-directed Oscar-nominated Farewell My Concubine (1993), for which she won Best Supporting Actress at the New York Film Critics Circle Awards. Other notable appearances include Zhou Yu's Train (2003), 2046 (2004), Memoirs of a Geisha (2005), Curse of the Golden Flower (2006). Gong was head of jury at the 2000 Berlin Film Festival and the 2002 Venice Film Festival, the first Asian to hold such position at both events. Throughout her career, Gong has won three Hundred Flowers Awards, two Golden Rooster Awards, a Hong Kong Film Award, and honorary awards at the Berlin and Cannes film festivals. She was appointed a Commander (Commandeur) of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the government of France in 2010.
2000年憑藉電影《漂亮媽媽》獲得第24屆蒙特利爾影展最佳女演員、第20屆中國電影金雞獎最佳女主角，成為首位兩度獲得國際A類影展影后的華人演員。2004年獲坎城影展特別大獎；同年上榜美國《首映》雜誌“影史百大偉大表演”。2005年入選中國電影百年百大演員。2006年上榜《時代周刊》“60年亞洲英雄”和《華盛頓郵報》“全球年度5位偉大演員”。2007年憑藉電影《滿城盡帶黃金甲》獲得第26屆香港電影金像獎最佳女主角。2010年法國政府授予鞏俐“ 藝術與文學勳章” 司令勛位。2019年獲得坎城影展組委會授予的“躍動她影”（Women In Motion）獎。
Gong Li was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, China, the youngest of five children. Her father was a professor of economics and her mother was a teacher. She grew up in Jinan, the capital of Shandong. She has been fond of singing and dancing since childhood, and dreamt of becoming a singer.
In 1985, she was accepted to study at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing from which she graduated in 1989. While a student there, she was discovered by Zhang Yimou, who chose her for the lead role in an anti-Japanese war romance Red Sorghum, his first film as a director.
That was the beginning of her 15-year cooperation with the China's fifth-generation directors. The film Red Sorghum won the Golden Bear at the 38th Berlin International Film Festival, becoming the first Chinese film to win this award. It also won the Golden Rooster Awards and the Hundred Flowers Awards for Best Picture in China in 1988.
Over the several years following her 1987 acting debut in Red Sorghum, Gong received international acclaim for her roles in several more Zhang Yimou films.
In 1990, Gong's film with Zhang Yimou, the family ethics movie Ju Dou, won the Luis Buñuel Special Award at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 63rd Academy Awards, becoming the first Chinese film to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Gong also won the Best Actress award at the Varna International Film Festival.
In 1991, Gong starred in Zhang Yimou's representative film Raise the Red Lantern, which won the Silver Lion award at the 48th Venice Film Festival and was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 64th Academy Awards.
In 1992, Gong won another Golden Lion award at the 49th Venice International Film Festival for her role in the rural drama The Story of Qiu Ju.
In 1993, she starred in Farewell My Concubine (1993) directed by Chen Kaige. The film was her first major role with a director other than Zhang Yimou.
Premiere magazine ranked her performance in Farewell My Concubine as the 89th greatest performance of all time.
In 1994, Gong won the Grand Prix at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival for her role in the drama To Live with Zhang Yimou.
She was called by Asiaweek as "one of the world's most glamorous movie stars and an elegant throwback to Hollywood's golden era".
In 1996, Gong appeared on the cover of Time magazine.
In November that year, Gong married Singaporean tobacco tycoon Ooi Hoe Seong at Hong Kong's China Club.
In 2000, Gong won her second international Best Actress trophy for her performance as a struggling single mother in Breaking the Silence (2000) at the Montreal Film Festival, directed by Sun Zhou. She attended the Montreal Film Festival that year, where she was awarded a special Grand Prix of the Americas for lifetime achievement for her outstanding achievement. In the same year, Gong was invited by the Berlin Film Festival to be the president of its international jury for the festival's 50th anniversary.
That year she was also nominated Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
In 2002 Gong was invited to head the jury of the Venice Film Festival.
Despite her popularity, Gong avoided Hollywood for years, due to a lack of confidence in speaking English. She made her English speaking debut in 2005 when she starred as Hatsumomo in Memoirs of a Geisha, where she learned her English lines phonetically.
The English-language films, Gong has gradually established herself in Hollywood. Speaking of the Hollywood experience, Gong said it broadened her horizons, gave her a better idea of what she liked and allowed her to experiment with different acting styles.
In 2006, Gong was voted the most beautiful woman in China. She worked again with Zhang Yimou for historical epic Curse of the Golden Flower, for which She won the best Actress at the 26th Hong Kong Film Awards. Time named her performance as the Empress as the 7th greatest performance of the year.
In 1997, Gong worked with Jeremy Irons on the romantic drama Chinese Box, which won the Best Original Music award at the Venice Film Festival. In the same year, Gong was invited to be a jury at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival, becoming the first Chinese to be a jury at the festival.
In June 1998, Gong Li became a recipient of France's Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.
Gong's personal and professional relationship with director Zhang Yimou has been highly publicized. The pair collaborated on six films between 1987 and 1995, before ending their relationship. The film Curse of the Golden Flower was their first time to work together again after a decade, and they collaborated again in 2014 on Coming Home.
In November 2008, Gong received her Singapore citizenship certificate; On 28 June 2010, Gong's agent confirmed that Gong Li and her husband Ooi had divorced.
In 2014, Gong was the president of the jury for the 17th Shanghai International Film Festival. In 2018, Gong served as the jury president of 55th Golden Horse Awards.
In 2019, Gong married French musician Jean-Michel Jarre, son of Maurice Jarre, composer for music scores of film Lawrence of Arabia.
In 2020, Gong starred in Peter Chan's biographical film Leap, where she plays the hard-driving, real-life head coach of the Chinese women’s national volleyball team Lang Ping.
2015年，鞏俐受美國《VOGUE》主編安娜·溫圖爾邀請出任 Met Gala（紐約大都會藝術博物館慈善舞會）聯合主席，成為首位擔任此職的華人。同年，鞏俐入選聯合國16位影響人類文化藝術家。