François Ozon (born 15 November 1967) is a French film director and screenwriter whose films are usually characterized by sharp satirical wit and a freewheeling view on human sexuality.
He has achieved international acclaim for his films 8 femmes (2002) and Swimming Pool (2003). Ozon is considered to be one of the most important French film directors in the new "New Wave" in French cinema such as Jean-Paul Civeyrac, Philippe Ramos, and Yves Caumon, as well as a group of French filmmakers associated with a "cinema du corps/cinema of the body".
François Ozon est un réalisateur, scénariste et producteur français, né à Paris le 15 novembre 1967.
Il a été six fois nommé au César du meilleur film et du meilleur réalisateur.
François Ozon was born in Paris, France. Having studied directing at the French film school La Femis, Ozon made several short films such as A Summer Dress (Une robe d'été, 1996) and Scènes de lit (1998). His motion picture directing debut was Sitcom (1998), which was well received by both critics and audiences.
After the Fassbinder adaptation Water Drops on Burning Rocks (Gouttes d'eau sur pierres brûlantes, 2000) came the film which made his name known outside France, 8 Women (8 femmes, 2002), starring Catherine Deneuve, Fanny Ardant, Isabelle Huppert and Emmanuelle Béart. With its quirky mix of musical numbers and murder mystery and a production design harking back to 1950s Hollywood melodramas such as those directed by Douglas Sirk, the film became a huge commercial success.
In 2003, Swimming Pool, which starred Charlotte Rampling and Ludivine Sagnier was released. It was considered by Ozon as a very personal film that gives insight into the difficult process of writing a novel or screenplay.
In 2004 he directed the film 5x2. In 2005 his film Time to Leave (Le Temps qui reste) was screened at various film festivals worldwide.
Ozon's first full English-language production Angel, starring Romola Garai, was released in early 2007. The film, based on a novel by British writer Elizabeth Taylor, follows the story of a poor girl who climbs Edwardian England's social ladder by becoming a romance writer. The film was shot at Tyntesfield House and Estate near Bristol, at other UK locations and in Belgium.
While filming Angel, Ozon developed a strong friendship with Garai and called her his "muse".
On 19 December 2011 Ozon was announced as being on the jury for the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival, which was held in February 2012.
His 2013 film Young & Beautiful (Jeune & Jolie) was nominated for the Palme d'Or at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. Ozon was elected as best screenwriter at the 2013 European Film Awards for his 2012 film In the House(Dans la maison).
François Ozon est né d'un biologiste et d'une professeure de français, dans une famille de quatre enfants. Il a reçu une éducation catholique.
Il affirme être homosexuel. La sexualité, l'ambiguïté, l'ambivalence et la subversion des normes sociales ou familiales sont certains de ses thèmes privilégiés.
Ozon se passionne très tôt pour le cinéma. Il fait quelques apparitions comme figuranta et crée quelques courts métrages amateurs en super 8 dans lesquels il fait jouer les membres de sa famille. Après une maîtrise de cinéma à l'université Paris-I, il intègre, en 1990, le département « Réalisation » de la Femis, dont il sort diplômé avec la promotion 1994. Il y rencontre ses futurs producteurs Olivier Delbosc et Marc Missonnier.
À sa sortie de l'école, François Ozon tourne ses premiers courts-métrages « professionnels », qui lui assurent très vite une certaine reconnaissance dans le milieu du cinéma. Ces films obtiennent d'ailleurs de nombreux prix dans des festivals. Durant dix années, François Ozon enchaîne les courts-métrages avant de passer au long métrage avec Sitcom (1998). C'est avec Sous le sable (2000) qu'il reçoit une large reconnaissance publique et critique.
Il rencontre à Paris Philippe Rombi qui écrit des compositions musicales pour des élèves de la Femis en parallèle de ses études au CNSMDP. Il signe ensuite la quasi-totalité des bandes originales de films de François Ozon.
En 2003, François Ozon fonde la société de production FOZ5, qui coproduit la plupart de ses films.
En 2012, François Ozon est membre du jury de la 62e édition du Festival international du film de Berlin, présidée par Mike Leigh. La même année, il obtient la Coquille d'or au 60e Festival de Saint-Sébastien pour Dans la maison, une histoire de vampirisation d’un professeur de français par un élève surdoué.
Les longs métrages d'Ozon démontrent une grande cinéphilie et procèdent par citations visuelles, de Jean-Luc Godard à Claude Chabrol, en passant par François Truffaut, Alain Resnais, Douglas Sirk, Luchino Visconti, Joseph L. Mankiewicz, Billy Wilder, Pedro Almodóvar ou encore Rainer Werner Fassbinder dont il adapte une pièce avec Gouttes d'eau sur pierres brûlantes.
Il tourne un film par an en moyenne et aime explorer divers genres qu'il mêle parfois : drame intimiste, mélodrame, film fantastique, comédie, film policier, comédie musicale, film noir, thriller ou film à costume. Ses scénarios s'attachent à relater le voyage intérieur de ses protagonistes, majoritairement féminins, qui se trouvent confrontés à la difficulté d'affirmer leurs désirs dans une société normative ou violente. Dans sa manière de filmer, Ozon alterne réalisme et artificialité revendiquée. Il a souvent recours à une forme de stylisation extrême (décors, costumes, manière de filmer, musique) pour faire émerger une vérité cachée sur ses personnages et jouer sur la confusion du vrai et du faux.
Jean Dorothy Seberg (November 13, 1938 – August 30, 1979) was an American actress who lived half of her life in France. Her performance in Jean-Luc Godard's 1960 film Breathless immortalized her as an icon of French New Wave cinema.
Seberg appeared in 34 films in Hollywood and in Europe, including Saint Joan, Bonjour Tristesse, Lilith, The Mouse That Roared, Breathless, Moment to Moment, A Fine Madness, Paint Your Wagon, Airport, Macho Callahan, and Gang War in Naples.
Seberg was among the best-known targets of the FBI COINTELPRO project. Her targeting was in retaliation for her support of the Black Panther Party, a smear directly ordered by J. Edgar Hoover.
Seberg died at the age of 40 in Paris, with police ruling her death a probable suicide. Romain Gary, Seberg's second husband, called a press conference shortly after her death at which he blamed the FBI's campaign against Seberg for her death. Gary noted that the FBI had planted false rumors with American media outlets claiming that her 1970 pregnancy was a Black Panther's child, and claimed that the trauma had resulted in the child's miscarriage. Gary stated that Seberg had attempted suicide on numerous anniversaries of the child's death, August 25.
Jean Dorothy Seberg was born in Marshalltown, Iowa, the daughter of Dorothy Arline, a substitute teacher, and Edward Waldemar Seberg, a pharmacist. Her family was Lutheran and of Swedish, English, and German ancestry.
Her paternal grandfather, Edward Carlson, arrived in the U.S. in 1882 and observed, "there are too many Carlsons in the New World." He changed the family surname to Seberg in memory of the water and mountains of Sweden. Seberg had a sister, Mary-Ann, and two brothers, Kurt and David, the younger of whom was killed in a car accident at the age of 18 in 1968.
In Marshalltown, Seberg babysat Mary Supinger, some eight years her junior, who became stage and film actress Mary Beth Hurt. After high school, Seberg enrolled at the University of Iowa to study dramatic arts, but took up filmmaking instead.
Jean Seberg made her film debut in the title role of Joan of Arc in Saint Joan (1957), based on the George Bernard Shaw play, having been chosen from among 18,000 hopefuls by director Otto Preminger in a $150,000 talent search. Her name was entered by a neighbor.
When she was cast on October 21, 1956, Seberg's only acting experience had been a single season of summer stock performances. The film generated a great deal of publicity, but Seberg commented that she was "embarrassed by all the attention." Despite great hype, called in the press a "Pygmalion experiment", both the film and Seberg received poor reviews. On the failure, she later told the press:
I am the greatest example of a very real fact, that all the publicity in the world will not make you a movie star if you are not also an actress.
She also recounted:
I have two memories of Saint Joan. The first was being burned at the stake in the picture. The second was being burned at the stake by the critics. The latter hurt more. I was scared like a rabbit and it showed on the screen. It was not a good experience at all. I started where most actresses end up.
Preminger promised her a second chance, and he cast Seberg in his next film, Bonjour Tristesse (1958), which was filmed in France. Preminger told the press: "It's quite true that, if I had chosen Audrey Hepburn instead of Jean Seberg, it would have been less of a risk, but I prefer to take the risk. [..] I have faith in her. Sure, she still has things to learn about acting, but so did Kim Novak when she started." Seberg again received negative reviews and the film nearly ended her career.
Seberg renegotiated her contract with Preminger and signed a long-term contract with Columbia Pictures. Preminger had an option to use her on another film, but they never again worked together. Her first Columbia film was the successful comedy The Mouse That Roared (1959), starring Peter Sellers.
During the filming of Bonjour Tristesse, Jean Seberg met François Moreuil, the man who was to become her first husband. 15 months later, On September 5, 1958, at the age of 19, Seberg married François Moreuil, a French lawyer (aged 23) in her native Marshalltown.
Afterwards, Seberg based herself in France, finally achieving success as the free-love heroine of French New Wave films.
She appeared as the female lead in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (French title: À bout de souffle, 1960) as Patricia, co-starring with Jean-Paul Belmondo. The film became an international success and critics praised Seberg's performance; film critic and director François Truffaut even hailed her as "the best actress in Europe."
Despite her achievements, Seberg did not identify with her characters or the film plots, saying that she was "making films in France about people [I'm] not really interested in."
Jean Seberg's husband Moreuil had ambitions to work in film. After appearing in Time Out for Love (Les grandes personnes, 1961), Seberg took the lead role in Moreuil's directorial debut, Love Play (La Recréation, also 1961). By that time, Seberg had become estranged from Moreuil, and she recollected that production was "pure hell" and that he "would scream at [her]."
They divorced in 1960.
Seberg followed the film Love Play with Five Day Lover (L'amant de cinq jours, 1962), Congo vivo (1962) and In the French Style (1962), a French-American film featuring Stanley Baker released through Columbia.
I'm enjoying it to the fullest extent. I've been tremendously lucky to have gone through this experience at an age where I can still learn. That doesn't mean that I will stay here. I'm in Paris because my work has been here. I'm not an expatriate. I will go where the work is. The French life has its drawbacks. One of them is the formality. The system seems to be based on saving the maximum of yourself for those nearest you. Perhaps that is better than the other extreme in Hollywood, where people give so much of themselves in public life that they have nothing left over for their families. Still, it is hard for an American to get used to. Often I will get excited over a luncheon table only to have the hostess say discreetly that coffee will be served in the other room. ... I miss that casualness and friendliness of Americans, the kind that makes people smile. I also miss blue jeans, milk shakes, thick steaks and supermarkets.
In 1961 Seberg met French aviator, French resistance member, novelist and diplomat Romain Gary, who was 24 years her senior and married to author Lesley Blanch. Seberg gave birth to their son, Alexandre Diego Gary, in Barcelona on July 17, 1962. The child's birth and first year of life were hidden, even from close friends and relatives. Gary's divorce from Blanch took place on September 5, 1962, and he married Seberg secretly on October 6, 1962 in Corsica.
During her marriage to Gary, Seberg lived in Paris, Greece, Southern France and Majorca.
After starring with Warren Beatty in the American film Lilith (1964) for Columbia, which prompted the critics to acknowledge Seberg as a serious actress, she returned to France to make Diamonds Are Brittle (Un milliard dans un billard, 1965).
In the late 1960s, Seberg was increasingly based in Hollywood. Moment to Moment (1965) was mostly filmed in Los Angeles; only a small part of the film was shot on the French Cote d'Azur. In New York, she acted in A Fine Madness (1966) with Sean Connery.
In 1966 and 1967, Seberg played the leading roles in two French films directed by Claude Chabrol and co-starring Maurice Ronet. In May and June of 1967, she played the lead role in the French-Italian Eurospy film The Road to Corinth, shot in Greece.
She filed for divorce from Romain Gary in September 1968, and the divorce was finalized on July 1, 1970.
In 1969, Seberg appeared in her only musical film, Paint Your Wagon (also 1969), based on Lerner and Loewe's stage musical and co-starring Lee Marvin and Clint Eastwood. Her singing voice was dubbed by Anita Gordon. Seberg also starred in the disaster film Airport (1970).
While filming Macho Callahan in Durango, Mexico in the winter of 1969–70, Seberg became romantically involved with a student revolutionary named Carlos Ornelas Navarra. She gave birth to Ornelas's daughter, Nina Hart Gary, on August 23, 1970. The baby died two days later on August 25, 1970 as a result of complications sustained when Seberg had overdosed on sleeping pills during her pregnancy. Ex-husband Gary assumed responsibility for the pregnancy, but Seberg acknowledged that Ornelas was the father. Nina is buried at Riverside Cemetery in Marshalltown.
On March 12, 1972, Seberg married director Dennis Berry. The couple separated in May 1976, but never divorced. Her next lover was aspiring French filmmaker Jean-Claude Messager, who later spoke to CBS's Mike Wallace for a 1981 profile of the actress.
Seberg was François Truffaut's first choice for the central role of Julie in Day for Night (La Nuit américaine, 1973) but, after several fruitless attempts to contact her, he gave up and cast British actress Jacqueline Bisset instead.
Seberg's last American film appearance was in the TV movie Mousey (1974). She remained active during the 1970s in European films, appearing in Bianchi cavalli d'Agosto (White Horses of Summer) (1975), Le Grand Délire (The Big Delirium, 1975, with husband Dennis Berry) and Die Wildente (1976, based on Ibsen's The Wild Duck).
In 1979, while still legally married to her estranged husband Berry, Seberg went through "a form of marriage" to Algerian Ahmed Hasni. Hasni persuaded her to sell her second apartment on the Rue du Bac, and he kept the proceeds (reportedly 11 million francs in cash), announcing that he would use the money to open a Barcelona restaurant. The couple departed for Spain, but she was soon back in Paris alone, and went into hiding from Hasni, who she claimed had grievously abused her.
Besides her husbands and lovers, Seberg reportedly had affairs with co-stars Warren Beatty (Lilith), Clint Eastwood (Paint Your Wagon) and Fabio Testi (Gang War in Naples).Writer Carlos Fuentes also claims to have had an affair with her.
On August 30, 1979, Seberg disappeared. Hasni told police that the couple had gone to a movie and when he awoke the next morning, Seberg was gone. After Seberg went missing, Hasni told police that he had known that she was suicidal for some time. He claimed that she had attempted suicide in July 1979 by jumping in front of a Paris subway train.
On September 8, nine days after her disappearance, Seberg's decomposing body was found wrapped in a blanket in the back seat of her Renault, parked close to her Paris apartment in the 16th arrondissement. Police found a bottle of barbiturates, an empty mineral water bottle and a note written in French by Seberg addressed to her son Alexandre Diego Gary. It read in part, "Forgive me. I can no longer live with my nerves." In 1979, her death was ruled a probable suicide by Paris police, but the following year additional charges were filed against persons unknown for "non-assistance of a person in danger."
Romain Gary, Seberg's second husband, called a press conference shortly after her death at which he blamed the FBI's campaign against Seberg for her deteriorating mental health.
Seberg is interred at the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.
At the time of Jean Seberg's death, she was working on the French film Operation Leopard (La Légion saute sur Kolwezi, 1980) which was based upon the book by Pierre Sergent. She had filmed scenes in French Guiana and returned to Paris for additional work in September. After her death, the scenes were reshot with actress Mimsy Farmer.
Six days after the discovery of Seberg's body, the FBI released documents under the Freedom of Information Act admitting its defamation of Seberg, while making statements attempting to distance the agency from the practices of the Hoover era. The FBI's campaign against Seberg was further explored by Time magazine in a front-page article titled "The FBI vs. Jean Seberg."
Media attention surrounding the FBI's abuse of Seberg led to an examination of the case by the Church Committee of the U.S. Senate.
In June 1980, Paris police filed charges against "persons unknown" in connection with Seberg's death. Police stated that Seberg had such a high amount of alcohol in her system at the time of her death that it would have rendered her comatose and unable to enter her car without assistance, and no alcohol was found in the car. Police theorized that someone was present at the time of Seberg's death and failed to seek medical care.
In December 1980, Seberg's former husband Romain Gary committed suicide. His suicide note, addressed to his publisher, indicated that he had not killed himself over the loss of Seberg, but because he could no longer produce literary works.
As of 2009, Jean Seberg and Romain Gary's son Alexandre Diego Gary resides in Spain, where he runs a bookstore and oversees his father's literary and real-estate holdings.
Agustina del Carmen Otero Iglesias (4 November 1868 – 10 April 1965), better known as Carolina Otero or La Belle Otero, was a Spanish actress, dancer and courtesan. She had a reputation for great beauty and was famous for her numerous lovers.
Agustina Carolina del Carmen Otero Iglesias, más conocida como Carolina Otero o La Bella Otero (Valga, 4 de noviembre de 1868-Niza, 12 de abril de 1965), fue una bailarina, cantante, actriz y cortesana española afincada en Francia y uno de los personajes más destacados de la Belle Époque francesa en los círculos artísticos y la vida galante de París.
Agustina del Carmen Otero Iglesias was born in Valga (Pontevedra), Galicia, Spain, daughter of a Spanish single mother, Carmen Otero Iglesias (1844–1903), and a Greek army officer, named Carasson. Her family was impoverished, and as a child she moved to Santiago de Compostela working as a maid. At ten she was raped, and at fourteen she left home with her boyfriend and dancing partner, Paco, and began working as a singer/dancer in Lisbon.
In 1888 Otero found a sponsor named Ernest Jurgens in Barcelona who moved with her to Marseilles in order to promote her dancing career in France. She soon left him and created the character of La Belle Otero, portraying herself as an Andalusian gypsy. She was pretty, confident, intelligent, with an attractive figure. It was once said of her that her extraordinarily dark black eyes were so captivating that they were "of such intensity that it was impossible not to be detained before them". She wound up as the star of Folies Bèrgere productions in Paris.One of her most famous costumes featured her voluptuous bosom partially covered with glued-on precious gems, and the twin cupolas of the Carlton Hotel built in 1912 in Cannes are popularly said to have been modeled upon her breasts.
Within a short number of years, La Bella Otero was said to be the most sought-after woman in Europe. She was serving, by this time, as a courtesan to wealthy and powerful men of the day, and she chose her lovers carefully. She associated herself with Kaiser Wilhelm II, Prince Albert I of Monaco, King Edward VII, Kings of Serbia, and Kings of Spain as well as Russian Grand Dukes Peter and Nicholas, the Duke of Westminster and writer Gabriele D'Annunzio. Her love affairs made her notorious, and the envy of many other notable female personalities of the day. Six men reportedly committed suicide after their love affairs with Otero ended, although this has never been substantiated beyond a doubt. It is a fact, however, that two men did fight a duel over her.
In August 1898, in St-Petersburg, the French film operator Félix Mesguich (an employee of the Lumière company) shot a one-minute reel of Otero performing the famous "Valse Brillante." The screening of the film at the Aquarium music-hall provoked such a scandal (because an officer of the Tsar's army appeared in this frivolous scene) that Mesguich was expelled from Russia.
La Bella Otero retired after World War I, purchasing a mansion and property at a cost of the equivalent of US$15 million. She had accumulated a massive fortune over the years, about US$25 million, but she gambled much of it away over the remainder of her lifetime, enjoying a lavish lifestyle, and visiting the casinos of Monte Carlo often. She lived out her life in a more and more pronounced state of poverty until she died of a heart attack in 1965 in her one-room apartment at the Hotel Novelty in Nice, France.
Of her heyday and career, Otero once said, "Women have one mission in life: to be beautiful. When one gets old, one must learn how to break mirrors. I am very gently expecting to die."
Hija de una madre soltera y muy pobre (Carmen Otero Iglesias, 1844-1903) y de un oficial de la armada griega llamado Carasson, apenas tuvo acceso a una educación académica. Tuvo cinco hermanos: Gumersindo, Valentín, Adolfo y Francisco, y una hermana gemela, Francisca. En julio de 1879, a los diez años, fue violada por Venancio Romero "Conainas", zapatero del pueblo, a causa de lo cual quedó estéril y huyó de casa unos meses después para no volver nunca más a su pueblo natal, Valga. Tras la fuga decidió usar su segundo nombre: Carolina, en lugar del primero Agustina.
A los trece años conoció a su primer amante, Paco, un joven tres años mayor que ella, quien le enseñó a bailar flamenco, a cantar y a ejercer de comediante en los salones de cantantes. Sin embargo, también fue quien la indujo a la prostitución. Cuando ella enfermó, el médico denuncia la situación de la entonces menor de edad y la llevan a casa, pero su madre la rechaza, tras lo que se une a Paco en Lisboa.
Trabajó en una compañía de cómicos ambulantes portugueses. Al dejar la compañía se vio obligada a ejercer oficios muy humildes para salir adelante, como trabajar de criada doméstica, bailar en locales de la más diversa índole, e incluso llegar a ejercer la prostitución.
En 1888 conoció en Barcelona a un banquero llamado Ernest Jurgens que la quiso promocionar como bailarina por Francia y la llevó a Marsella, aunque enseguida empezó a promocionarse a sí misma hasta llegar a ser una bailarina conocida en toda Francia como La Bella Otero. En la promoción enfatizaba su origen español (muy exótico en Francia por entonces) y se presentaba artísticamente como andaluza y de origen gitano. La construcción del personaje artístico de Otero está tan llena de mitos que incluso han perdurado hasta nuestros días, habiendo biógrafos que sitúan su nacimiento en Cádiz, hija de una gitana, tal y como ella afirmaba en su autobiografía.
Realizó giras por todo el mundo como bailarina exótica y actriz, consiguiendo fama internacional. Se sabe que actuó en Nueva York en 1890, además de visitar otros países como Argentina, Cuba y Rusia, coincidiendo en este último con Rasputín. Otero actuó durante muchos años en París en el Folies Bergère, donde era la estrella y en el Cirque d'été, convirtiéndose en una de las primeras artistas españolas conocida internacionalmente.
Otero no era una bailarina profesional y su arte era más instintivo que técnico. Sus danzas eran una mezcla de estilos flamenco, fandangos o danzas exóticas. También era una cantante competente y tenía calidad como actriz. Representó Carmen de Bizet y piezas teatrales como Nuit de Nöel.
A pesar de sus éxitos profesionales, Otero había conseguido ascender en el mundo artístico prostituyéndose y haciéndose amante de hombres influyentes. No era una práctica extraña que las artistas ejercieran de cortesanas para aumentar sus ingresos. En la Belle Époque era habitual y los hombres que podían pagar las astronómicas sumas que cobraban estas cortesanas conseguían prestigio. Otero era una de las más famosas y cotizadas de la alta sociedad parisina. Fue amante de Guillermo II de Alemania, Nicolás II de Rusia, Leopoldo II de Bélgica, Alfonso XIII de España, Eduardo VII del Reino Unido y Aristide Briand —con quien tuvo una relación entrañable hasta la muerte del político—, entre otros. Otero llegó a reunir una fabulosa fortuna que, debido a la ludopatía que padecía, fue dilapidando en los casinos de Montecarlo y Niza.
Retirada de los escenarios en 1910, se estableció en Niza, Francia, donde vivió hasta su muerte en 1965 totalmente arruinada y sola. Vivía de una pensión que le pasaba el Casino de Montecarlo en agradecimiento por los millones de francos que en él dejara. Nunca se casó.
Falleció de un infarto fulminante en su humilde departamento el 12 de abril de 1965, con noventa y seis años. A su entierro solo asistieron varios crupieres y el gerente del Casino de Montecarlo para despedirla.
De su vida se han escrito varias biografías y se han hecho películas y series para la televisión. Debido a que Otero inventó parte de su pasado para ocultar hechos como su violación o sus orígenes extremadamente humildes, muchas biografías, películas u otros trabajos en torno a su persona tienen datos inexactos y hechos que nunca sucedieron de verdad.