Fabiola de Mora y Aragón, Queen of the Belgians(11 June 1928 – 5 December 2014)
Doña Fabiola Fernanda María-de-las-Victoria Antonia Adelaida de Mora y Aragón (11 June 1928 – 5 December 2014) was Queen of the Belgians from her marriage to King Baudouin in 1960 until his death in 1993. The couple had no children, so the Crown passed to her husband's younger brother, King Albert II.
Fabiola de Mora (Madrid; 11 de junio de 1928 - Bruselas; 5 de diciembre de 2014) fue una aristócrata española, hija de los Marqueses de Casa Riera que se convirtió en reina consorte de los belgas tras su matrimonio con el rey Balduino de Bélgica entre 1960 y 1993.
Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón was born in Madrid, Spain, at the Palacio de Zurbano, the main residence of the Marqués de Casa Riera. She was the daughter of Don Gonzalo de Mora y Fernández y Riera y del Olmo, 4th Marqués de Casa Riera, 2nd Count of Mora (1887–1957), and his wife, Doña Blanca de Aragón y Carrillo de Albornoz y Barroeta-Aldamar y Elío (1892–1981), daughter of the 6th Marchioness of Casa Torres and Viscountess of Baiguer. Her godmother was Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain.
Fabiola worked as a nurse in a hospital in Madrid. Before her marriage, she published an album of 12 fairy tales (Los doce cuentos maravillosos), one of which ("The Indian Water Lilies") would get its own pavilion in the Efteling theme park in 1966.
On 15 December 1960, Fabiola married Baudouin, who had been King of the Belgians since the abdication of his father, Leopold III, in 1951. At the marriage ceremony in the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula, she wore a 1926 Art Deco tiara that had been a gift of the Belgian state to her husband's mother, Astrid of Sweden, upon her marriage to Leopold III. Her dress of satin and ermine was designed by the couturier Cristóbal Balenciaga.
On the occasion of her marriage, Spanish bakers set out to honour Fabiola and created a type of bread, "la fabiola", which is still made in Palencia.
According to official sources, Queen Fabiola was fluent in French, Dutch, English, German and Italian, in addition to her native Spanish.
The royal couple had no children, as the Queen's five pregnancies ended in miscarriage in 1961, 1962, 1963, 1966 and 1968. Fabiola openly spoke about her miscarriages in 2008: 'You know, I myself lost five children. You learn something from that experience. I had problems with all my pregnancies, but you know, in the end I think life is beautiful'. She and Baudouin I called the miscarriages a chance to be able to love all children. She was deeply involved with the upbringing of Prince Philippe and Princess Astrid.
Baudouin died in late July 1993 and was succeeded by his younger brother, Albert II. Fabiola moved out of the Royal Castle of Laeken to the more modest Stuyvenberg Castle and reduced her public appearances so as not to overshadow her sister-in-law, Queen Paola.
In September 1993, she became the president of the King Baudouin Foundation, established in 1976 to mark the twenty fifth anniversary of King Baudouin's reign. The foundation's purpose is to improving the living conditions of the population.
During the 1990s, the Hospital Saint-Pierre in Brussels was important in matters around AIDS. Queen Fabiola visited them in 1993 and embraced a patient. She was one of the first public figures to do this.
Queen Fabiola also founded the Social Secretariat of the Queen with the purpose to answering many requests for help. She has supported study programmes aimed at prevention and treatment of dyslexia among children.
She established Queen Fabiola Fund for Mental Health. The foundation's purpose is to help people with mental problems. During her entire life, she devoted herself to causes such as young women prostitution, human slavery and people with disabilities. Queen Fabiola received several humanitarian awards in her lifetime and was awarded the Ceres Medal in 2001 by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.
Admired for her devout Roman Catholicism and involvement in social causes particularly those related to mental health, children's issues and women's issues, Queen Fabiola received the 2001 Ceres Medal, in recognition of her work to promote rural women in developing countries. The medal was given by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Queen Fabiola was hospitalised for 15 days with pneumonia beginning 16 January 2009, with her condition described as "serious". She subsequently recovered and began attending public functions the following May. Queen Fabiola had been in poor health for years, having osteoporosis, as well as having never fully recovered from a lung inflammation she had in 2009.
On the evening of 5 December 2014, the Royal Palace announced that Queen Fabiola had died at Stuyvenberg Castle.
The federal government declared a period of national mourning from Saturday 6 December to Friday 12 December, the day when the funeral of Queen Fabiola took place at the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels.
The Royal Family, members of the government and the Lord Speaker received the coffin at the Royal Palace on 10 December where it was placed in the grand antechamber, where it was decorated with flowers and attended by an honour guard of generals, members of the King's Royal Military household.
Members of several royal families around the world including the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Empress of Japan, Queen of Denmark, King and Queen of Sweden, King of Norway accompanied by his sister Princess Astrid, former King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain, former Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein, former Empress Farah of Iran and Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand, attended the funeral. No members of the British Royal Family or the Monegasque Princely Family attended the funeral, leading to criticism by both Belgian and international press.
The explorer Guido Derom named the Queen Fabiola Mountains – a newly discovered range of Antarctic mountains – in her honour in 1961.
Fabiola nació el 11 de junio de 1928 en el Palacio de Zurbano (Madrid), la entonces residencia de los Marqueses de Casa Riera, actual sede del Ministerio de Fomento.
Fabiola fue la cuarta de los siete hijos de Gonzalo de Mora y Fernández Riera y del Olmo, IV marqués de Casa Riera y II conde de Mora (1887-1957) y de Blanca de Aragón y Carrillo de Albornoz, Barroeta-Aldamar y Elío, VIII marquesa de Casa Torres, XVIII vizcondesa de Baiguer, condesa de la Rosa de Abarca (entre otros títulos) (1892-1981).
Sus padrinos de bautismo fueron su tío Fernando de Aragón, VIII marqués de Casa Torres, y la reina de España, Victoria Eugenia.
En 1931 con la proclamación de la II República, la familia se exilió por razones políticas a decisión de su padre, amigo personal de Alfonso XIII. Residieron en Francia, Italia y Suiza hasta el fin de la Guerra Civil. A su regreso a España, los Mora recuperaron y restauraron su palacio de Madrid que durante la guerra había funcionado como cuartel de Dolores Ibarruri, conocida como La Pasionaria.
Fue educada en los colegios de las Religiosas de la Asunción en Roma, París y Lausana, y, en Madrid, en el Liceo Alemán. Cursó, luego, la carrera de enfermería técnica de la Sanidad Militar en la escuela de Carabanchel en Madrid entre 1957 y 1958, y realizó prácticas en San Sebastián y en el Hospital Militar Gómez Ulla.
Además del español, Fabiola hablaba con fluidez francés, neerlandés, inglés, alemán e italiano.
En 1955, había publicado anónimamente un álbum de doce cuentos de hadas (Doce cuentos maravillosos) que alcanzaría la popularidad con su traducción al neerlandés en 1961 al punto de que uno de ellos («Los nenúfares indios») conseguiría su propia atracción en el parque temático Efteling (Países Bajos) en 1966.
Contrajo matrimonio con el rey Balduino de Bélgica el 15 de diciembre de 1960 en la catedral de San Miguel y Santa Gúdula de Bruselas y ese mismo día iniciaron su luna de miel en España, concretamente en Hornachuelos (Córdoba).
La nueva reina consorte llevó un vestido creado por el diseñador español Cristóbal Balenciaga.
Desde el momento de su boda, Fabiola se convirtió en reina de los Belgas. Fue la reina consorte de los belgas durante el reinado de su marido, Balduino.
Durante el reinado de su esposo Balduino, Fabiola de Bélgica recibió el tratamiento de Su Majestad Fabiola, reina de los Belgas. Tras la muerte de su esposo, su título cambió a Su Majestad la Reina Fabiola de Bélgica.
La reina Fabiola estuvo muy vinculada a su país natal, España, ya que desde siempre lo visitaba muy a menudo, teniendo un vínculo especial con Madrid, Guipúzcoa y Navarra. En esta última comunidad tenía un palacete en la localidad de Elío (Navarra), una de sus residencias de verano en España junto con la de Zarauz, en Guipúzcoa, cercana al municipio de Guetaria, de donde era originaria la familia de su tatarabuelo materno, Joaquín Francisco de Barroeta-Aldamar y Hurtado de Mendoza.
Fabiola también poseía una residencia de verano llamada Villa Astrida en la localidad granadina de Playa Granada, Motril, donde falleció su esposo Balduino el 31 de julio de 1993.
La pareja real no tuvo descendencia. La reina llegó a sufrir hasta cinco abortos involuntarios.
Fabiola habló abiertamente sobre estos abortos en el año 2008: "Usted sabe, yo misma perdí cinco hijos. Se aprende algo de esa experiencia. He tenido problemas con todos mis embarazos, pero ya sabes, al final creo que la vida es bella".
Balduino fue sucedido por su hermano menor Alberto II y Fabiola se trasladó del Palacio Real de Bruselas al castillo de Stuyvenberg y redujo sus apariciones públicas para no eclipsar a su cuñada, la reina Paola.
El 3 de octubre de 2009, fue recibida como dama divisera hijadalgo del Ilustre Solar de Tejada, la corporación nobiliaria más antigua de España, dado que Fabiola descendía, por línea materna, de varias generaciones de señores de Tejada, naturales de Aldeanueva de Cameros, en el siglo XVII.
La Reina Fabiola Falleció por causas naturales en su residencia, el Castillo de Stuyvenberg en Laeken. Los reyes Felipe y Matilde y los reyes eméritos Paola y Alberto visitaron la capilla ardiente instalada en el Palacio Real de Bruselas.
A su despedida final asistieron los reyes eméritos Juan Carlos I y Sofía de España, la princesa Beatriz de los Países Bajos, los reyes Harald V de Noruega (con su hermana Astrid), Margarita II de Dinamarca y Carlos XVI Gustavo de Suecia (con su esposa Silvia), así como el príncipe soberano Juan Adán II de Liechtenstein y el gran duque Enrique de Luxemburgo (con su esposa María Teresa), entre otros soberanos del resto del mundo, en un sencillo pero alegre funeral. De Europa no estuvieron representadas ni la Familia Real Británica ni la Familia Principesca de Mónaco.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was a child prodigy who, aged eleven, became the youngest student to enter the Royal Academy Schools. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded at his family home in London, at 83 Gower Street (now number 7). Millais became the most famous exponent of the style, his painting Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–50) generating considerable controversy, and he produced a picture that could serve as the embodiment of the historical and naturalist focus of the group, Ophelia, in 1851–52.
By the mid-1850s, Millais was moving away from the Pre-Raphaelite style to develop a new form of realism in his art. His later works were enormously successful, making Millais one of the wealthiest artists of his day, but some former admirers including William Morris saw this as a sell-out (Millais notoriously allowed one of his paintings to be used for a sentimental soap advertisement). While these and early 20th-century critics, reading art through the lens of Modernism, viewed much of his later production as wanting, this perspective has changed in recent decades, as his later works have come to be seen in the context of wider changes and advanced tendencies in the broader late nineteenth-century art world, and can now be seen as predictive of the art world of the present.
Millais's personal life has also played a significant role in his reputation. His wife Effie was formerly married to the critic John Ruskin, who had supported Millais's early work. The annulment of the Ruskin marriage and Effie's subsequent marriage to Millais have sometimes been linked to his change of style, but she became a powerful promoter of his work and they worked in concert to secure commissions and expand their social and intellectual circles.
Millais was born in Southampton, England, in 1829, of a prominent Jersey-based family. His parents were John William Millais and Emily Mary Millais (née Evermy). Most of his early childhood was spent in Jersey, to which he retained a strong devotion throughout his life. The family moved to Dinan in Brittany for a few years in his childhood.
His mother's "forceful personality" was the most powerful influence on his early life. She had a keen interest in art and music, and encouraged her son's artistic bent, promoting the relocating of the family to London to help develop contacts at the Royal Academy of Art. He later said "I owe everything to my mother."
His artistic talent won him a place at the Royal Academy Schools at the still unprecedented age of eleven. While there, he met William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti with whom he formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (known as the "PRB") in September 1847 in his family home on Gower Street, off Bedford Square.
Millais's Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–50) was highly controversial because of its realistic portrayal of a working class Holy Family labouring in a messy carpentry workshop. Later works were also controversial, though less so. Millais achieved popular success with A Huguenot (1851–52), which depicts a young couple about to be separated because of religious conflicts. He repeated this theme in many later works. All these early works were painted with great attention to detail, often concentrating on the beauty and complexity of the natural world.
In paintings such as Ophelia (1851–52) Millais created dense and elaborate pictorial surfaces based on the integration of naturalistic elements. This approach has been described as a kind of "pictorial eco-system."
Mariana is a painting that Millais painted in 1850–51 based on the play Measure for Measure by William Shakespeare and the poem of the same name by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from 1830. In the play, the young Mariana was to be married, but was rejected by her betrothed when her dowry was lost in a shipwreck.
This style was promoted by the critic John Ruskin, who had defended the Pre-Raphaelites against their critics.
Millais was elected as an associate member of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1853, and was soon elected as a full member of the Academy, in which he was a prominent and active participant.
Millais's friendship with Ruskin introduced him to Ruskin's wife Effie. Soon after they met, she modelled for his painting The Order of Release. As Millais painted Effie, they fell in love.
Despite having been married to Ruskin for several years, Effie was still a virgin. Her parents realised something was wrong and she filed for an annulment.
In 1855, after her marriage to Ruskin was annulled, Effie and John Millais married. He and Effie eventually had eight children from1856 to 1868. Their youngest son, John Guille Millais, became a naturalist, wildlife artist, and Millais's posthumous biographer. Their daughter Alice (1862–1936), later Alice Stuart-Worsley after she married Charles Stuart-Worsley, was a close friend and muse of the composer Edward Elgar, and is thought to have been an inspiration for themes in his Violin Concerto.
Effie's younger sister Sophie Gray sat for several pictures by Millais, prompting some speculation about the nature of their apparently fond relationship.
After his marriage, Millais began to paint in a broader style, which was condemned by Ruskin as "a catastrophe." It has been argued that this change of style resulted from Millais's need to increase his output to support his growing family. Unsympathetic critics such as William Morris accused him of "selling out" to achieve popularity and wealth. His admirers, in contrast, pointed to the artist's connections with Whistler and Albert Moore, and influence on John Singer Sargent. Millais himself argued that as he grew more confident as an artist, he could paint with greater boldness.
In his article "Thoughts on our art of Today" (1888) he recommended Velázquez and Rembrandt as models for artists to follow. Paintings such as The Eve of St. Agnes and The Somnambulist clearly show an ongoing dialogue between the artist and Whistler, whose work Millais strongly supported.
Other paintings of the late 1850s and 1860s can be interpreted as anticipating aspects of the Aesthetic Movement. Many deploy broad blocks of harmoniously arranged colour and are symbolic rather than narratival.
Later works, from the 1870s onwards demonstrate Millais's reverence for Old Masters such as Joshua Reynolds and Velázquez. Many of these paintings were of an historical theme. Notable among these are The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower (1878) depicting the Princes in the Tower, The Northwest Passage (1874) and the Boyhood of Raleigh (1871). Such paintings indicate Millais's interest in subjects connected to Britain's history and expanding empire.
In 1870 Millais returned to full landscape pictures, and over the next twenty years painted a number of scenes of Perthshire where he was annually found hunting and fishing from August until late into the autumn each year. Most of these landscapes are autumnal or early winter in season and show bleak, dank, water-fringed bog or moor, loch, and riverside. The first of these, Chill October (1870) (Collection of Andrew Lloyd Webber) was the first of the large-scale Scottish landscapes Millais painted periodically throughout his later career.
Between 1881 and 1882, Millais was elected and acted as the president of the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists.
In July 1885, Queen Victoria created him a baronet, of Palace Gate, in the parish of St Mary Abbot, Kensington, in the county of Middlesex, and of Saint Ouen, in the Island of Jersey, making him the first artist to be honoured with a hereditary title.
Millais achieved great popularity with his paintings of children, notably Bubbles (1886) – famous, or perhaps notorious, for being used in the advertising of Pears soap – and Cherry Ripe.
After the death of Lord Leighton in 1896, Millais was elected President of the Royal Academy.
His last project (1896) was to be a painting entitled "The Last Trek." Based on his illustration for his son's book, it depicted a hunter lying dead in the veldt, his body contemplated by two onlookers.
Millais died later in the same year from throat cancer. He was buried in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral.
When Millais died in 1896, the Prince of Wales (later to become King Edward VII) chaired a memorial committee which commissioned a statue of the artist. The statue, by Thomas Brock, was installed at the front of the National Gallery of British Art (now Tate Britain) in the garden on the east side in 1905.
In 2007 the artist was the subject of a major retrospective at Tate Britain, London visited by 151,000 people. The exhibition then traveled to the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, followed by venues in Fukuoka and Tokyo, Japan, and seen by over 660,000 visitors in total.