Herminia Elena Josefa Rodríguez-Borrell Feijoo was born in Camariñas, La Coruña, Galicia, Spain in 1897, in a family which got wealthy from sugar business in Cuba, with several properties in Galicia.
His parents Máximo and Maria Luisa decided that she should learn English and sent her to London accompanied by her aunt Lala. But there Herminia became fascinated by the high society life and enjoyed shopping, diners and parties. And it was there in 1918, she met a German multimillionaire Nubar Gulbenkian, son of Calouste Gulbenkian, a legendary businessman and philanthropist who had made his fortune in the oil business, and one of the richest men in the world at the time. The Gulbenkian family lived in London with properties in Paris and Côte d'Azur.
It was love at first sight. After 3 three years of dating, they married in 1922 London in a civil ceremony, in "Prince's Row Registry Office", with only Herminia's mather and her aunt present. It was followed with another ceremony according to German customs in a suite in Hotel Ritz in Picadilly, where Nubar lived at the time.
After their marriage, the couple lived the high life in London, driving around Europe in their Rolls-Royce and drinking Champagne in Buckinghame Palace with the royalty. But the idyllic life did not last long.
Sometimes after the couple moved from Ritz to a home in Park Lane, Nubar began to be unfaithful to Herminia, which she could not tolerate. Her early years in London had transformed her into one of those modern and daring women. In fact, she became the first Spanish woman ever to have a driving license. At the end of the 20s, Herminia asked for divorce and returned to La Coruña, thus becoming one of the few Spanish women who divorced from their husbands.
At just 30 years old, Herminia was famous, beautiful, and rich, with 300 dollars per month provided by her husband and all the jewelleries she took with her while leaving him. Although she had been away for many years, she was quickly integrated into the high society life of La Coruña and caused sensation with her beauty, elegance and her arrogance.
There she lived as she pleased. She worn trousers, rode bicycle and played tennis , She bought a motorcycle and owned two boats which were docked at the Real Club Náutico. She lived in palace in Sigrás, where she collected art works as as well local craftworks, such as Camariñas laces. Herminia lived in luxury and parties.
Thus passed the years until her health worsened as she got older. In February 1971, she was discovered sleeping in her by now ruined palace, dirty, malnourished and delirious. She was taken to the hospital but there was nothing to be done for her.
Herminia Borrell died on 18 February 1971, and was buried in the Municipal Cemetery of San Amaro of Coruña. The Times published an obituary of her calling her "Spanish Beauty."
In his memoirs Portrait in Oil published in 1965, her ex-husband Nubar Gulbenkian thus described her:
"Whenever we were in a restaurant, our table would become the center of attention. Herminia attracted attention because of her beauty typically Spanish, because of her black hair parted in the middle and gathered at the nape. It looked extremely attractive."
Henry James OM (15 April 1843 – 28 February 1916) was an American author. He is regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
He was the son of Henry James Sr. and the brother of renowned philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James. Born in the United States, James largely relocated to Europe as a young man, and eventually settled in England, becoming a British citizen in 1915, a year before his death. James was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911, 1912, and 1916.
He is best known for a number of novels dealing with the social and marital interplay between émigré Americans, English people, and continental Europeans. Examples of such novels include The Portrait of a Lady, The Ambassadors, and The Wings of the Dove. His later works were increasingly experimental. In describing the internal states of mind and social dynamics of his characters, James often made use of a style in which ambiguous or contradictory motives and impressions were overlaid or juxtaposed in the discussion of a character's psyche. For their unique ambiguity, as well as for other aspects of their composition, his late works have been compared to impressionist painting.
His novella The Turn of the Screw has garnered a reputation as the most analysed and ambiguous ghost story in the English language, and remains his most widely adapted work in other media. He also wrote a number of other highly regarded ghost stories, and is considered one of the greatest masters of the field.
James published articles and books of criticism, travel, biography, autobiography, and plays.
Henry James was born at 21 Washington Place in New York City on 15 April 1843. Both of his parents were of Irish and Scottish descent. His father Henry James, Sr. was intelligent and steadfastly congenial, a lecturer and philosopher who had inherited independent means from his father, an Albany banker and investor. His mother Mary Walsh came from a wealthy family long settled in New York City. Henry James had three brothers and one sister.
Before he was a year old, his father sold the house at Washington Place and took the family to Europe, where they lived for a time in England. The family returned to New York in 1845, and Henry spent much of his childhood living between his paternal grandmother's home in Albany, and a house on 14th Street in Manhattan. His education was calculated by his father to expose him to many influences, primarily scientific and philosophical. Between 1855 and 1860, the James household travelled to London, Paris, Geneva, Boulogne-sur-Mer, and Newport, Rhode Island, according to the father's current interests and publishing ventures, retreating to the United States when funds were low. Henry studied primarily with tutors, and briefly attended schools while the family travelled in Europe. Their longest stays were in France, where Henry began to feel at home and became fluent in French. He had a stutter, which seems to have manifested itself only when he spoke English; in French, he did not stutter.
In 1860, the family returned to Newport. There, Henry became a friend of painter John La Farge, who introduced him to French literature, and in particular, to Balzac. James later called Balzac his "greatest master", and said that he had learned more about the craft of fiction from him than from anyone else.
In 1862, Henry attended Harvard Law School, but realised that he was not interested in studying law. He pursued his interest in literature and formed lifelong friendships with Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., the future Supreme Court justice, and with James T. Fields and Annie Adams Fields, his first professional mentors.
His first published work was a review of a stage performance, "Miss Maggie Mitchell in Fanchon the Cricket," published in 1863. About a year later, "A Tragedy of Error", his first short story, was published anonymously.
In 1869, he settled in London, where he established relationships with Macmillan and other publishers, who paid for serial installments that they published in book form. The audience for these serialized novels was largely made up of middle-class women, and James struggled to fashion serious literary work within the strictures imposed by editors' and publishers' notions of what was suitable for young women to read. He lived in rented rooms, but was able to join gentlemen's clubs that had libraries and where he could entertain male friends. He was introduced to English society by Henry Adams and Charles Milnes Gaskell, the latter introducing him to the Travellers' and the Reform Clubs.
During a 14-month trip through Europe in 1869–70, he met John Ruskin, Charles Dickens, Matthew Arnold, William Morris, and George Eliot. Rome impressed him profoundly. He attempted to support himself as a freelance writer in Rome, When his effort failed, he returned to New York City.
In 1871, he published his first novel, Watch and Ward, in serial form in the Atlantic Monthly. The novel was later published in book form in 1878.
During 1874 and 1875, he published Transatlantic Sketches, A Passionate Pilgrim, and Roderick Hudson. During this early period in his career, he was influenced by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
In the fall of 1875, he moved to the Latin Quarter of Paris, where he met Zola, Daudet, Maupassant, Turgenev, and others. He stayed in Paris for only a year before moving to London. Aside from two trips to America, he spent the next three decades—the rest of his life—in Europe.
While living in London, James continued to follow the careers of the French realists, Émile Zola in particular. Their stylistic methods influenced his own work in the years to come. Hawthorne's influence on him faded during this period, replaced by George Eliot and Ivan Turgenev.
In England, he met the leading figures of politics and culture. In the first few years he published The American (1877), The Europeans (1878), a revision of Watch and Ward (1878), French Poets and Novelists (1878), Hawthorne (1879), and several shorter works of fiction. In 1878, Daisy Miller established his fame on both sides of the Atlantic. He also began his first masterpiece, The Portrait of a Lady, which appeared in 1881.
The period from 1882 to 1883 was marked by several losses. His mother died in January 1882, while James was in Washington, DC, on an extended visit to America. He returned to his parents' home in Cambridge, where he was together with all four of his siblings for the first time in 15 years. He returned to Europe in mid-1882, but was back in America by the end of the year following the death of his father. Emerson, an old family friend, died in 1882. His brother Wilkie and friend Turgenev both died in 1883.
In 1884, James made another visit to Paris, where he met again with Zola, Daudet, and Goncourt.
In 1886, he published The Bostonians and The Princess Casamassima, both influenced by the French writers he had studied assiduously.
During this time, he became friends with Robert Louis Stevenson, John Singer Sargent, Edmund Gosse, George du Maurier, Paul Bourget, and Constance Fenimore Woolson. His third novel from the 1880s was The Tragic Muse. Although he was following the precepts of Zola in his novels of the '80s, their tone and attitude are closer to the fiction of Alphonse Daudet. The lack of critical and financial success for his novels during this period led him to try writing for the theatre.
After the stage failure of Guy Domville in 1895, James was near despair and thoughts of death plagued him. His depression was compounded by the deaths of those closest to him, including his sister Alice in 1892; his friend Wolcott Balestier in 1891; and Stevenson and Fenimore Woolson in 1894. The sudden death of Fenimore Woolson in January 1894, and the speculations of suicide surrounding her death, were particularly painful for him.
In 1897–1898, he moved to Rye, Sussex and wrote The Turn of the Screw; 1899–1900 had the publication of The Awkward Age and The Sacred Fount. During 1902–1904, he wrote The Ambassadors, The Wings of the Dove, and The Golden Bowl.
In 1904, he revisited America and lectured on Balzac. In 1906–1910, he published The American Scene and edited the "New York Edition", a 24-volume collection of his works. In 1910, his brother William died.
In 1913, he wrote his autobiographies, A Small Boy and Others, and Notes of a Son and Brother.
In 1915, he became a British citizen and was awarded the Order of Merit the following year.
He died on 28 February 1916, in Chelsea, London, and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. As he requested, his ashes were buried in Cambridge Cemetery in Massachusetts.
(Adèle) Henriette Negrin, (or Nigrin), born on 4 October 1877 in Fontainebleau, died in 1965 in Venice, was a French clothes-designer and textile arts artist. She created fabrics and clothes, and worked alongside her husband Mariano Fortuny.
(Adèle) Henriette Negrin, (ou Nigrin), née le 4 octobre 1877 à Fontainebleau et morte en 1965 à Venise, est une couturière française et artiste en arts textiles. Elle fut la muse et l'épouse de Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo.
Henriette Negrin met Mariano Fortuny in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century and, in 1902, went to live with him in Venice at the Palazzo Pesaro degli Orfei, now Palazzo Fortuny, one of the museums of the city.
Henriette Negrin and her husband shared an interest for textile creations. In particular, she researched pigments for the dying of fabrics, applying the dyes herself to the wood stencils for printing the textiles. Together, they developed a pleating machine the patent for which was filed by the National Institute of Industrial Property (France) of Paris on June 10, 1909.
In a signed hand-written note on a copy of the patent (copy kept at the Marciana Library), Mariano Fortuny acknowledged his future wife as the inventor of the machine: " Ce brevet est de la propriété de Madame Henriette Brassart qui est l’inventeur. J’ai pris ce brevet en mon nom pour l’urgence du dépôt." ("This patent is the property of Madame Henriette Brassart who is the inventor. I submitted this patent in my name given the urgency of filing").
This pleating technique plays a central role in the design of the Delphos gown, whose creation Henriette Negrin confirmed as her own in a letter to Elsie McNeill Lee, at the time the exclusive distributor of the Fortuny fabrics and dresses in the United States. In the letter, Henriette Negrin indicated her decision to terminate all production of the dress that she had designed.
During the 47 years of her life with Mariano Fortuny, Henriette Negrin was fully involved in all aspects of their creative life. After his death, she curated her husband's art collection, donating works to several museums and compiling the inventory of the contents of their residence. She donated the building to the city of Venice, which came into its full possession after her death in 1965.
Henriette Negrin rencontra Mariano Fortuny à Paris au début du xxe siècle et en 1902 alla vivre avec lui à Venise au Palazzo Pesaro degli Orfei, aujourd'hui Palazzo Fortuny, un des musées de la ville. Collaboratrice fidèle, elle partage sa passion pour les créations textiles et s'occupe en particulier des recherches sur les pigments pour les teintures, enduisant elle-même les pochoirs pour les impressions sur tissu. Ensemble, ils mettront au point une machine pour « étoffe plissée ondulée » dont le brevet fut déposé auprès de l'Institut national de la propriété industrielle de Paris le 10 juin 1909.
Mariano Fortuny reconnut à sa femme la création de cette machine par une note manuscrite ajoutée sur le brevet: « Ce brevet est de la propriété de Madame Henriette Brassart qui est l’inventeur. J’ai pris ce brevet en mon nom pour l’urgence du dépôt... Le 10 juin 1909 à París. Fortuny », et dans le catalogue de l'exposition « Henriette Fortuny, Ritratto di una Musa » au Musée du Palazzo Fortuny à Venise.
Cette préparation des tissus est la base de la robe Delphos, dont Henriette révèle être la créatrice dans une lettre adressée à Elsie McNeill au moment de la vente de l'entreprise à cette dernière, distributrice exclusive des tissus et modèles Fortuny aux États-Unis.
Vingt-deux ans après s'être rencontrés, Henriette Negrin et Mariano Fortuny se marièrent à Paris en 1924. Pendant les 47 ans de vie commune, Henriette Negrin se consacra entre autres au développement des teintures de tissus, géra la vie quotidienne du couple et partagea jusqu'à sa vente les responsabilités de l'entreprise Fortuny établie en 1921 dans le quartier de la Giudecca. Elle passa le reste de sa vie à gérer les collections artistiques de sa famille, selon les volontés de son mari.
À sa mort, elle légua le Palais Fortuny à la ville de Venise qui en fit un musée.