María de los Ángeles Félix(8 April 1914 – 8 April 2002) was a Mexican film actress and singer. Along with Pedro Armendáriz and Dolores del Río, she was one of the most successful figures of Latin American cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. Considered one of the most beautiful actresses of Mexican cinema, her taste for the finesse and strong personality garnered her the title of diva early in her career. She was known as La Doña, a name derived from her character in the film Doña Bárbara (1943), and María Bonita, thanks to the anthem composed exclusively for her, as a wedding gift by her second husband, the Mexican composer Agustín Lara. She completed a film career that included 47 films made in Mexico, Spain, France, Italy and Argentina
María de los Angeles Félix Güereña was born in Álamos, Sonora, Mexico on 8 April 1913.
She was the daughter of a military officer and had fifteen siblings.
She spent her childhood in Álamos but the Félix family moved later to Guadalajara. When María was 17, her beauty began to attract attention. She was crowned Beauty Queen at the University of Guadalajara. It was at this time that she met Enrique Álvarez Alatorre, a salesman for the cosmetics firm Max Factor. After a brief romance, the couple married in 1931. In 1935, Félix gave birth to her only child, Enrique, nicknamed Quique. Her marriage with Álvarez was unsuccessful and the couple divorced in 1937. After her divorce, Félix returned to Guadalajara with her family, where she was the subject of gossip and rumors due to her status as a divorcée. Because of this situation, Félix decided to move to Mexico City with her son.
When I want to, it will be through the big door."
In Mexico City, María Félix worked as a receptionist in a plastic surgeon's office, and one afternoon after work when walking down the street, director and filmmaker Fernando Palacios approached her and later persuaded her to break into the movies.
Becoming her Pygmalion, Palacios began to train her and present her in film circles. She made her first appearance in the White and Black Ballroom of the Mexico City Country Club where some of the great Mexican movie stars of the era (Esther Fernández, Lupe Vélez, Andrea Palma) gathered.
Eventually she was taken to Hollywood, to the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, where she met Cecil B. DeMille, who offered to launch her film career in Hollywood, but Félix was not interested. She preferred to begin her career in her own country. And throughout her filming career, Félix has declined some of the most famous female roles Holloywood offered her: the female role of Duel in the Sun, which went to Jennifer Jones; the female lead in film The Barefoot Contessa with Humphrey Bogart which later was played by Ava Gardner.
Maria Félix was known as La Doña for her role in the movie Doña Bárbara (1943), based on the like-named novel by the Venezuelan writer Rómulo Gallegos. For the film, another actress (Isabela Corona) was already hired, but when Gallegos first saw Félix, he was charmed by her and said: "Here is my Doña Bárbara!".
In 1945 Maria Félix married famous Mexican composer Agustín Lara after a highly publicized relationship. Lara immortalized Félix in a number of songs, such as "Humo en los ojos" ("Smoke in the eyes"), "Cuando vuelvas" ("When you come back"), "Dos puñales" ("Two daggers"), "Madrid" and especially the famous theme "María Bonita", composed in Acapulco during their honeymoon. "María Bonita" would become one of Lara's most popular Lara songs. However, the relationship ended in 1947 due to Lara's jealousy. Félix said that Lara even tried to kill her in a fit of violent jealousy.
In 1948 she was contracted by the Spanish film producer Cesáreo González and thus María Félix began her film adventure in Europe with the film Mare Nostrum (1948), directed by Rafael Gil.
In 1952, Félix returned to Mexico and concluded her working relationship with Cesáreo González with the film Camelia filmed in her native country.
After her second divorce from Agustín Lara, Maria Félix had romances with some well-known men, including her "old enemy": the actor and singer Jorge Negrete. Unlike their difficult first meeting ten years ago on the set of El peñón de las ánimas, Félix found Negrete, in her own words: "surrendered to my feet". After a brief romance, the couple married in 1953.
Unfortunately Negrete was already ill when the marriage took place. Negrete died eleven months later at a hospital in Los Angeles, California, while Félix was in Europe shooting La Belle Otero. Félix's appearance at his funeral, dressed in trousers, caused a huge scandal, which led Félix to take refuge in Europe. And the most important film of Félix in this period was French Cancan (1954) directed by Jean Renoir with the legendary French actor Jean Gabin.
Félix returned to Mexico in 1955.
In 1956, Maria Félix married the Romanian-born French banker Alexander Berger This marriage lasted for 18 years, and she built her famous home, La Casa de las Tortugas (The House of Turtles), designed by Pepe Mendoza and resembling an Italian villa, in Cuernavaca.
In her prime times, Maria Félix was dressed by designers like Christian Dior, Givenchy, Yves Saint Laurent, Chanel, and Balenciaga. The House of Hermès (Couture Department) designed extravagant creations just for her. She also liked to collect fine antiques, favoring pieces like her famous collection of Second French Empire furniture.
In the 1960s Félix's presence in the cinema was limited to only a few films. In 1970 she filmed La Generala, which would be her last film. The Mexican historical telenovela La Constitución (1971) would be her last professional acting job.
Berger died in 1974 of lung cancer months after the death of María's mother, which plunged her into a deep depression. To overcome this depression, she developed a new passion: horses. Some of her horses won major international equestrian awards.
Félix attempted to return to the cinema twice. First, in 1982, with the film Toña Machetes, and again in 1986 with the film Insólito resplandor. Neither project crystallized, and Félix never reappeared in film.
With Dolores I had no rivalry. On the contrary, we were friends and always treated each other with great respect, each with our own personality. We were completely different. She was refined, interesting, gentle on the deal, and I'm energetic, arrogant and bossy."
Maria Félix's last romantic relationship was the Russian-French painter Antoine Tzapoff. About him, Félix said: "I don't know if he's the man who has most loved me, but he's who has loved me better."
María Félix died in her sleep on 8 April 2002, her 88th birthday in Mexico City. She was buried in her family's tomb alongside her son Enrique and her parents at Panteón Francés in Mexico City. In 2018, Google celebrated Felix's 104th birthday with a Google Doodle
Maria Félix and Cartier
Maria Félix was a jewelry connoisseur and had an extensive jewelry collection, including the 41.37 carat (8.274 g), D-flawless Ashoka diamond, and she had a very close relationship with Cartier.
In 1968, she commissioned a serpent diamond necklace from Cartier Paris. The result was a completely articulated serpent made out of platinum and white goldand encrusted with 178.21 carats (35.642 g) of diamonds.
In 1975, Maria Félix again asked Cartier to create a necklace for her, this time in the shape of two crocodiles. The two crocodile bodies were made of 524.9 grams of gold, one covered with 1,023 yellow diamonds, while the other was adorned with 1,060 circular cut emeralds. Later she sold most of her jewelry back to Cartier's. She also left a Rolls Royce in Paris.
Since Félix's death, these jewelry pieces have been displayed as part of The Art of Cartier Collection in several museums around the world. To pay tribute to the actress, in 2006 Cartier debuted its La Doña de Cartier collection. The La Doña de Cartier watch with reptilian links was created to impress by its wild look. The case of the La Doña de Cartier features a trapezoid shape with an asymmetrical profile reminiscent of a crocodile's head. The wristband of the watch resembles the contours of a crocodile in large, bold and gold scales. The La Doña de Cartier Collection also includes jewelry, accessories, and handbags.
Fiona Campbell-Walter (born Fiona Frances Elaine Campbell-Walter) was born on 25 June 1932 in Auckland, New Zealand.
In the 1950s, Fiona was one of the most famous and photographed models, as the favorite muse of Cecil Beaton, she was also the protagonist under the camera of other famed photographers like Henry Clarke, John French, David Bailey, Norman Parkingson etc.
As one of the top models of her day, she did not just appear in the major women's magazines like Vogue, but also the salons of the top Couturiers like Christian Dior, and Jacques Fath and Elsa Schiaparelli.
1956: Baroness von Thyssen
On 17 September 1956, in a small Italian village of Castagnola, Fiona was married to Baron Hans Henrik Agost Gabor Tasso Friherr Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kaszon et Imperfalva, mostly known as Heini von Thyssen, who was heir to a fortune made from steel and arms, and a major art collector whose collection was said to be second only to Queen Elizabeth II.
After her marriage, she lived with her husband in Villa Favorita beside Lake of Lugano, a life of elegance, culture and power. She had two children with Heini von Thyssen, one daughter named Francesca in 1958, and a son Lorne in 1963, and not long afterwards, she divorced her husband and moved to London with her two children.
Since 1969, Fiona was involved romantically with Alexandre Onassis, the son of Aristote Onassis. who tried to stop the love affair because Fiona was 16b years older than his son Alexandre, but after the death of Alexandre in January 1973, he realized the two never really parted.
Named the most beautiful model of Vogue, Fiona Campbell-Walter had a relative short career, mostly in the 1950s before her marriage, and occassionlly in the 1960s after her divorce, but she remained one of the greatest British models in that epoque, together with Barbara Goalen and Anne Gunning.
And during her short career, Fiona von Thyssen, she has worked with most of the greatest photographers of her time:Henry Clarke, John Deakin, Frances McLaughlin-Gilln, John French, Norman Parkinson, Milton Greene, Georges Dambier, Cecil Beaton and David Bailey.
David Mackenzie Ogilvy CBE (23 June 1911 – 21 July 1999) was a British advertising tycoon, founder of Ogilvy & Mather, and known as the "Father of Advertising". Trained at the Gallup research organisation, he attributed the success of his campaigns to meticulous research into consumer habits.
David Mackenzie Ogilvy was born on 23 June 1911 at West Horsley, Surrey in England. His mother was daughter of a civil servant from Ireland. His father was a stockbroker.
He was a first cousin once removed of the writer Rebecca West and of Douglas Holden Blew Jones, who was the brother-in-law of Freda Dudley Ward and the father-in-law of Antony Lambton, 6th Earl of Durham. Ogilvy attended St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne, on reduced fees because of his father's straitened circumstances and won a scholarship at age thirteen to Fettes College, in Edinburgh.
In 1929, he again won a scholarship, this time in History to Christ Church, Oxford. His studies were not successful, however, and he left Oxford for Paris in 1931 where he became an apprentice chef in the Hotel Majestic.
After a year, he returned to Scotland and started selling AGA cooking stoves, door-to-door. His success at this marked him out to his employer, who asked him to write an instruction manual, The Theory and Practice of Selling the AGA Cooker, for the other salesmen. Thirty years later, Fortune magazine editors called it the finest sales instruction manual ever written.
After seeing the manual, Ogilvy's older brother Francis Ogilvy—the father of actor Ian Ogilvy—showed the manual to management at the London advertising agency Mather & Crowther where he was working. They offered the younger Ogilvy a position as an account executive.
In 1938, Ogilvy persuaded his agency to send him to the United States for a year, where he went to work for George Gallup's Audience Research Institute in New Jersey. Ogilvy cites Gallup as one of the major influences on his thinking, emphasizing meticulous research methods and adherence to reality.
During World War II, Ogilvy worked for the British Intelligence Service at the British embassy in Washington, DC. There he analyzed and made recommendations on matters of diplomacy and security. Eisenhower’s Psychological Warfare Board picked up the report and successfully put Ogilvy’s suggestions to work in Europe during the last year of the war.
Also during World War II David Ogilvy was a notable alumnus of the secret Camp X, located near the towns of Whitby and Oshawa in Ontario, Canada.
After the war, Ogilvy bought a farm in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and lived among the Amish. The atmosphere of "serenity, abundance, and contentment" kept Ogilvy and his wife in Pennsylvania for several years, but eventually he admitted his limitations as a farmer and moved to Manhattan.
Having worked as a chef, researcher, and farmer, Ogilvy now started his own advertising agency with the backing of Mather and Crowther, the London agency being run by his elder brother, Francis, which later acquired another London agency, S.H. Benson. The new agency in New York was called Ogilvy, Benson, and Mather. David Ogilvy had just $6,000 ($59,726.72 in 2016 dollars) in his account when he started the agency. He writes in Confessions of an Advertising Man that, initially, he struggled to get clients.
Ogilvy & Mather was built on David Ogilvy's principles; in particular, that the function of advertising is to sell and that successful advertising for any product is based on information about its consumer. He disliked advertisements that had loud patronizing voices, and believed a customer should be treated as intelligent. In 1955, he coined the phrase, "The customer is not a moron, she's your wife" based on these values.
His entry into the company of giants started with several iconic advertising campaigns: former First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, did a commercial for Good Luck Margarine in 1959. In his autobiography, Ogilvy On Advertising, he said it had been a mistake to persuade her to do the ad – not because it was undignified, but because he had grown to realize that putting celebs in ads is a mistake.
"Pablo Casals is coming home – to Puerto Rico", a campaign which Ogilvy said helped change the image of a country, and was his proudest achievement.
One of his greatest successes was "Only Dove is one-quarter moisturizing cream". This campaign helped Dove become the top selling soap in the U.S
Ogilvy believed that the best way to get new clients was to do notable work for his existing clients. Success in his early campaigns helped Ogilvy get big clients such as Rolls-Royce and Shell. New clients followed and Ogilvy's company grew quickly. He was widely hailed as "The Father of Advertising" In 1962, Time called him "the most sought-after wizard in today's advertising industry".
Ogilvy & Mather linked with H.H.D Europe in 1972.
In 1973, Ogilvy retired as Chairman of Ogilvy & Mather and moved to Touffou, his estate in France.
The Château de Touffou is a castle, converted into a mansion, in the commune of Bonnes 18 km east of Poitiers, 3 km north of Chauvigny in the Vienne département and on a long tall bank of the River Vienne, France.
The château was constructed over several centuries. The Medieval Wing includes Romanesque and gothic elements (the keep). The east half dates back to the 12th century while the west half was constructed in the early 15th century. The Renaissance Wing was added during the 16th century by the Chasteigner family. The main difference between these two epochs in castle construction is that in the Middle Ages, a castle was built for defense. In the Renaissance however, a castle was a home for nobles. Rather than defense and protection, the castle-dwellers in the Renaissance strived for classy, fashionable residences.
Today, the Medieval Wing is used to accommodate large business meetings and seminars, and the Renaissance Wing is the private residence of the castle proprietor.
The castle has been privately owned throughout its existence. It passed from the Oger family (1127-1280) to the Montléon family (1280-1519) and eventually to the Chasteigner family (1519-1821). Jean Chasteigner III, a Chamberlain to Francis I, oversaw most of the castle’s renovation in the early Renaissance.
Once the Chasteigners sold the castle, Touffou changed hands several times, finally being purchased in 1966 by David Ogilvy from the "de Vergie family". The castle is still owned by the Ogilvy family, even after David's death in 1999.
In 1923 the castle was recognized as a monument historique, and in 2004 its gardens were classified as among the Notable Gardens of France by the French Ministry of Culture.
While no longer involved in the agency's day-to-day operations, he stayed in touch with the company. His correspondence so dramatically increased the volume of mail handled in the nearby town of Bonnes that the post office was reclassified at a higher status and the postmaster's salary raised.
“IT TAKES A BIG IDEA TO ATTRACT THE ATTENTION OF CONSUMERS AND GET THEM TO BUY YOUR PRODUCT. UNLESS YOUR ADVERTISING CONTAINS A BIG IDEA, IT WILL PASS LIKE A SHIP IN THE NIGHT. I DOUBT IF MORE THAN ONE CAMPAIGN IN A HUNDRED CONTAINS A BIG IDEA.”
Ogilvy came out of retirement in the 1980s to serve as chairman of Ogilvy, Benson, & Mather in India. He also spent a year acting as temporary chairman of the agency’s German office, commuting weekly between Touffou and Frankfurt. He visited branches of the company around the world, and continued to represent Ogilvy & Mather at gatherings of clients and business audiences.
In 1989, The Ogilvy Group was bought by WPP Group, a British parent company, for US$864 million in a hostile takeover made possible by the fact that the company group had made an IPO as the first company in marketing to do so.
During the takeover procedures, Sir Martin Sorrell, the founder of WPP, was described by Ogilvy as an "odious little shit", and he promised to never work again. Eventually he became a fan of Sorrell, and he was quoted as saying, 'When he tried to take over our company, I would liked to have killed him. But it was not legal. I wish I had known him 40 years ago. I like him enormously now.'
Ogilvy was made a Commander of the Order of British Empire (CBE) in 1967. He was elected to the U.S. Advertising Hall of Fame in 1977 and to France's Order of Arts and Letters in 1990. He chaired the Public Participation Committee for Lincoln Center in Manhattan and served as a member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s 100th Anniversary Committee. He was appointed Chairman of the United Negro College Fund in 1968, and trustee on the Executive Council of the World Wildlife Fund in 1975. Mr. Ogilvy was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1979.
David Ogilvy died on 21 July 1999 at his home, the Château de Touffou, in Bonnes, France.
David Ogilvy was a pretty smart dude. Often called the father of advertising, he’s responsible for some of the most successful advertising campaigns of all time – success he attributes to his meticulous research into consumer habits.
His philosophies on creativity and brand identity are legend, and many believe he is the inspiration for Don Draper, Jon Hamm’s character in Mad Men.
In addition to building a wildly successful advertising empire, he also wrote numerous books, each containing their fair share of pearls of wisdom. read full article
For over a half century, David Ogilvy was the dapper executive behind New York’s powerhouse marketing firm Ogilvy & Mather. He was also the original “Mad Man,” a martini-slugging, pipe-puffing male now personified by Don Draper and idealized by a generation of guys who, like myself, have gone on one too many outings to Pottery Barn. full article
Guido Reni (Bologna, 4 novembre 1575 – Bologna, 18 agosto 1642) è stato un pittore e incisore italiano, uno dei massimi esponenti del classicismo seicentesco.
Reni è nato a Bologna, nell'attuale Palazzo Ariosti in via San Felice, da Daniele, musicista e insegnante della Cappella di San Petronio.
Nel 1584, secondo lo storico Carlo Cesare Malvasia, che conobbe il pittore, abbandonò i suoi studi di musica, avviati da suo padre, per entrare nell'officina bolognese stabilita del pittore fiammingo Denijs Calvaert, come apprendistato destinati a un grande successo come Francesco Albani e Domenichino e sappiamo che ha studiato in particolare le incisioni di Dürer e Raffaello.
Suo padre morì il 7 gennaio 1594, Guido lasciò il laboratorio di Calvaert per unirsi all'Accademia degli Incamminati.
Nel 1598, già pittore indipendente, dipinse l'Incoronazione della Vergine e quattro santi, oggi nella Pinacoteca di Bologna, per la chiesa di San Bernardo, e vinse il concorso, in concorso con Ludovico Carracci, per la decorazione della facciata del Palazzo del Regimento, l'attuale edificio comunale di Bologna.
La figura di Guido Reni è stata ripresa anche dallo scrittore tedesco Joseph von Eichendorff nel suo romanzo Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts, la vita di uno stalker.
Forse già nel 1600 ma certamente nel 1601 era a Roma, dove fu pagato dal cardinale Sfondrato per il suo Martirio di santa Cecilia della Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Trastevere.
Nel marzo del 1602 tornò nella città natale per assistere ai funerali del grande Agostino Carracci e fu incaricato di incidere a stampa le decorazioni allestite per il funerale.
Viaggiò da Bologna a Roma e di qui a Loreto, per trattare delle eventuali decorazioni della Santa Casa che furono però affidate al Pomarancio.
È la sua ricerca del bello ideale, ricavato dal classicismo raffaellesco nella mediazione dei Carracci che sfiora soltanto la visione naturalistica di Caravaggio ma se ne allontana per la necessità di ammantarla di decoro; di questa esperienza, nel primo decennio del secolo, sono parte il Davide con la testa di Golia del Louvre, il Martirio di santa Caterina per la chiesa di Sant'Alessandro a Conscente, ora al Museo diocesano di Albenga in Liguria, La preghiera nell'orto di Sens e L'incoronazione della Vergine di Londra.
Il 25 settembre 1609 ricevette il primo acconto per gli affreschi della cappella Paolina in Santa Maria Maggiore che interruppe alla fine del 1610, sembra per contrasti con l'amministrazione papale.
Tornò a Bologna dopo il 1614, anno in cui terminò l'Aurora per il casino Rospigliosi (a Roma). La Strage degli innocenti e il Sansone vittorioso furono probabilmente iniziati a Roma e terminati a Bologna (venti scudi gli erano infatti anticipati a Roma per la commissione della Strage).
Se il Sansone è un gigante effeminato che si ristora dopo il massacro, e i morti sembrano dormire placidamente nella serenità albeggiante di una vasta pianura, nell'altra Strage, rappresentata con sei donne, due piccoli morti e due assassini, la tragedia è congelata nella misura e nella simmetria della composizione raffaellesca. Di questo dipinto, suo capolavoro assoluto, si ricordarono Poussin, i pittori neoclassici francesi e persino Picasso, che richiamò la tela di Reni in alcune parti del suo Guernica.
Tornò a Roma nel 1612, per terminare in aprile gli affreschi di Santa Maria Maggiore; il cardinale Scipione Borghese gli commissionò, per un Casino nel parco del suo palazzo, ora Palazzo Pallavicini Rospigliosi, l'affresco dell'Aurora, terminato nell'agosto 1614.
Dopo un breve soggiorno a Napoli, ancora a Roma ai primi del 1614, tornò definitivamente a Bologna nell'ottobre 1614.
Al primo viaggio di ritorno da Roma, e ai dubbi sulla sua pittura, è dedicato il romanzo biografico Il viaggio di Guido Reni, scritto da Manlio Cancogni e vincitore del Premio Grinzane Cavour del 1987 (Lit, Roma, 2013).
Nel 1615 terminò di affrescare la Gloria di San Domenico nel catino absidale della nuova cappella barocca contenente l'arca del santo fondatore dell'ordine domenicano, che aveva iniziato due anni prima e subito interrotto a causa dei viaggi a Roma.
I lavori che aveva in corso, in contemporanea e su grandi formati, sia a Roma che a Bologna, necessitarono da subito la collaborazione di colleghi, assistenti e giovani praticanti. Tanti furono i giovani pittori che ambirono ad essere considerati suoi allievi, partecipando attivamente alla vita delle sue diverse “stanze” oppure passandovi sporadicamente per cogliere qualche spunto dai suoi lavori in corso d’opera; per questo motivo Reni riservava ai suoi lavori più importanti ambienti appartati, per evitare plagi da parte di giovani di passaggio e per smorzare invidie tra gli assistenti più stretti.
Nel maggio 1622 fu a Napoli, per affrescare la cappella del Tesoro di San Gennaro nel Duomo ma non raggiunse l'accordo economico e ripartì per Roma, dopo aver dipinto tre tele per la chiesa di San Filippo Neri.
Nel 1625 firmò e datò a Roma il Ritratto del cardinale Roberto Ubaldini, ora in una collezione privata inglese, e la grande pala barocca della Trinità per la chiesa dei Pellegrini, terminata a settembre e dipinta, secondo il Malvasia, in ventisette giorni.
A questo periodo (1627) appartiene anche la celeberrima tela della Immacolata Concezione, oggi nella Chiesa di San Biagio a Forlì.
Ritornò ancora a Roma nel 1627 per eseguire gli affreschi, commissionatigli dal cardinale Barberini, delle Storie di Attila in San Pietro; impose che nessuno – «né anco i cardinali» - salisse sulle impalcature durante i lavori e tuttavia non iniziò nemmeno e ripartì bruscamente per Bologna, per l'ostilità di alcuni cardinali e della gelosia del Gessi, suo ex allievo.
Durante questa permanenza a Roma dall'ambasciatore spagnolo ricevette la commissione del Ratto d'Elena, ma non si accordò sul compenso e fu allora venduto in Francia a Monsieur de la Vrillière: è una fredda e decorativa scena da melodramma cortigiano, diversamente dal Ritratto del cardinale Bernardino Spada, conservato nell'omonima Galleria romana, donato dal pittore all'amico cardinale, legato pontificio a Bologna. Lo Spada è rappresentato con evidente simpatia e una resa vibrante di colori che ne esalta l'aspetto aristocratico e intelligente in un contesto di compostezza e decoro.
Superata la tremenda peste del 1630, il Senato bolognese gli commissionò la pala votiva della Madonna col Bambino e santi, criticata dai contemporanei per la sua seconda maniera: schiarisce le tonalità, intridendole di argento, come si nota anche nella delicata Annunciazione di Ascoli Piceno.
Prima del 1635 eseguì su seta, per il cardinale Sant'Onofrio, fratello del papa Urbano VIII, il San Michele arcangelo. Celebrato come esempio di bellezza ideale, il Reni, in una lettera, scrisse di aver voluto avere «pennello angelico o forme di Paradiso per formare l'Arcangelo o vederlo in Cielo; ma io non ho potuto salir tant'alto ed invano l'ho cercato in terra. Sicché ho riguardato in quella forma che nell'idea mi sono stabilita.»
Fanno parte della produzione ultima le Adorazioni dei pastori di Napoli e di Londra, i San Sebastiano di Londra e di Bologna, la Flagellazione di Cristo di Bologna, Il suicidio di Cleopatra e La fanciulla con corona, entrambe nella Pinacoteca Capitolina e per ultimo il San Pietro piangente in collezione privata, che Alex Cavallucci e Andrea Emiliani collocano in questi ultimi anni di vita del maestro. Sono opere che il Malvasia definì incompiute: eseguite a pennellate veloci e sommarie, secondo un'intenzione stilistica che la critica, dal Novecento, riconobbe invece come consapevole scelta estetica. Per il suo biografo, a causa dei debiti, il pittore fu costretto negli ultimi anni «a lavorare mezze figure e teste alla prima, e senza il letto sotto; a finire inconsideratamente le storie e le tavole più riguardevoli; a prender denaro a cambio da tutti; a non ricusare ogni imprestito da gli amici; a vendere, vil mercenario, l'opra sua e le giornate a un tanto l'ora.»
Sembra certo che soffrisse di depressione: «comincio a non piacere più nemmeno a me stesso», scrisse, e confessò di pensare alla morte «conoscendo essere vissuto assai, anzi troppo, dando fastidio a tanti altri, forzati a star bassi finch'io vivo.»
Il 6 agosto 1642 fu "colto da febbri" che lo portarono a morte il 18 agosto, a 67 anni. Il corpo fu esposto vestito da cappuccino e sepolto nella cappella del Rosario della basilica di San Domenico, per volontà del senatore bolognese Saulo Guidotti, legato al pittore da profonda amicizia. Accanto a lui giaceranno presto anche le spoglie di Elisabetta Sirani, figlia di Giovanni Andrea Sirani, suo allievo prediletto.
È la sostanziale ambiguità della sua poetica ad aver fatto oscillare l'apprezzamento della sua opera nel tempo: fu esaltato dai contemporanei per l'armonia raggiunta nel coniugare il classicismo raffaellesco alle esigenze di verità poste da Caravaggio - esigenze naturalistiche del resto già sentite dal Reni fin dal tempo della sua frequentazione dei Carracci - e depurate dagli eccessi in nome del decoro e della ricerca del bello ideale.
«Di tutti gli allievi dei Carracci è stato il più felice e ancor oggi si trova un'infinità di persone che prediligono le sue opere al punto da preferire la delicatezza e la grazia che manifestano alla grandezza e alle forti espressioni di altre» (Des Avaux, 1666) e Pierre-Jean Mariette, nel 1741, scrive che «la nobiltà e la grazia che Guido ha soffuso sui volti, i suoi bei drappeggi, uniti alla ricchezza delle composizioni, ne hanno fatto un pittore dei più gradevoli. Ma non si deve credere che sia giunto a questo senza essersi sottoposto a un intenso lavoro. Lo si vede soprattutto nei disegni preparatori di grandi dimensioni: ogni particolare è reso con assoluta precisione. Attraverso di essi si rivela un uomo che consulta continuamente la natura e che non fa alcun assegnamento sul suo dono felice di abbellirla.»
Apprezzate nel Settecento anche le opere dell'ultima maniera dalle forme che si dissolvono nella luce, nell'Ottocento, a parte la stroncatura di John Ruskin, nel 1844, ("la religione deve essere ed è sempre stata il fondamento e lo spirito informatore di ogni vera arte. Mi assale una collera disperata quando sento che Eastlake compera dei Guido per la National Gallery"), intorno al Reni si fa silenzio quando non vi è il disprezzo per certe espressioni della sua pittura devozionale.
Nel 1923 esce l'importante articolo di Hermann Voss sugli anni romani dell'attività del Reni, in cui lo studioso tedesco individua l'attenzione del bolognese alla pittura moderna di Annibale Carracci e dello stesso Caravaggio ma con un approccio da conservatore che "paralizza" la monumentalità dell'uno e il naturalismo dell'altro, tanto da suscitare l'entusiasmo di un Cavalier d'Arpino. «L'irresistibile incanto del Reni era ed è riposto nel sensuale fascino della sua cantilena in una sua tipica e inimitabile dolcezza musicale [...] il modo con cui lascia cadere una veste frusciante, con cui, grazie ad una semplicissima curva compositiva, fa risuonare e vibrare l'intera figurazione, ha qualcosa di sonnambulesco.» Non vi sono nel Reni nuovi pensieri e originalità compositive ma un semplice confrontarsi con la tradizione: la forza del pittore sta «nell'alto senso della bellezza e in quella musicalità del sentire che nobilitano ogni linea, ogni movenza.»
Per il Longhi, nel Reni è acutissimo il desiderio «di una bellezza antica ma che racchiuda un'anima cristiana [...] spesso, da vero pittore e poeta, escogita gamme paradisiache [...] angeli soffiati in rosa e biondo [...] un anelito a estasiarsi, dove il corpo non è che un ricordo mormorato, un'impronta; un movente quasi buddistico, che bene s'accorda con l'esperienza tentata da Guido di dipinger sulla seta, a somiglianza, appunto, degli orientali.»
Il suicidio di Cleopatra (circa 1625-1626), Bildergalerie (Sanssouci), Potsdam
Una grande mostra a Bologna nel 1954 accentuò l'interesse critico per l'artista: per il Ragghianti, «il vero Reni ci si presenta come un artista rimasto, oltre ogni dottrina e bravura di prove, trepidamente adolescente, in un crepuscolo di esperienze che, come nella pubertà, avvolge il senso nella fantasia e gli dà quell'accensione fascinosa che dilata la realtà.»
Per Cesare Gnudi, la poetica classicista fu dominante nel Reni, ed egli, pur identificando il suo ideale di bellezza con le immagini della mitologia classica, dovette mediare tale ideale con la realtà storica, politica e religiosa, cui aderiva, della Controriforma, e «fra il suo ideale di bellezza e il suo sentimento religioso già assestato in una quieta e accomodante pietà, egli non sentì forse mai un vero contrasto.» Non è vero che il vero Reni si troverebbe nell'evocazione di soggetti mitologici e un falso Reni si esprimerebbe nella convenzionalità dei suoi soggetti religiosi; se mondo classico e mondo religioso non contrastano fra di loro, tuttavia nemmeno si identificano e il Reni non sentì mai di dover scegliere: «La scelta non avvenne perché egli sentiva nell'uno e nell'altro mondo qualche parte vitale di sé. Non avvenne mai la rinuncia all'uno in nome dell'altro. Il dualismo restò così fino all'ultimo, continuamente composto e continuamente affiorante.»
Negli ultimi anni «alla levitazione della forma materica farà seguito progressivo un disfacimento delle ultime vestigia naturali; la pittura andrà sempre più a decomporsi come una crisalide, lasciando emergere la struttura scarna e tuttavia persuasiva del progetto grafico sottostante. L'accelerazione è così evidente da far risuonare sotto le volte dello studio posto quasi in piazza Maggiore quel non finito che il Manierismo aveva portato al livello della metafora (l'impossibile a dire, a esprimere) che al contrario Guido intendeva come la sublime sprezzatura poetica dell'esprimibile toccato e colto nella pienezza dell'idea, del suo mondano travestimento.» (Emiliani).
Guido Reni ( 4 November 1575 - 18 August 1642) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, although his works showed a classical manner, similar to Simon Vouet, Nicholas Poussin, and Philippe de Champaigne. He painted primarily religious works, but also mythological and allegorical subjects. Active in Rome, Naples, and his native Bologna, he became the dominant figure in the Bolognese School that emerged under the influence of the Carracci.
Born in Bologna into a family of musicians, Guido Reni was the only child of Daniele Reni and Ginevra Pozzi. At the age of nine, he was apprenticed to the Bolognese studio of Denis Calvaert. When Reni was about twenty years old, the three Calvaert pupils migrated to the rising rival studio, named Accademia degli Incamminati (Academy of the "newly embarked", or progressives), led by Ludovico Carracci. They went on to form the nucleus of a prolific and successful school of Bolognese painters who followed Lodovico's cousin Annibale Carracci to Rome.
By late 1601, Reni had moved to Rome to work with the teams led by Annibale Carracci in fresco decoration of the Farnese Palace. During 1601–1604, his main patron was Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati. By 1604–1605, he received an independent commission for an altarpiece of the Crucifixion of St. Peter. After returning briefly to Bologna, he went back to Rome to become one of the premier painters during the papacy of Paul V (Borghese); between 1607–1614, he was one of the painters most patronized by the Borghese family.
Reni's frescoed ceiling of the large central hall of the Casino dell'Aurora, located in the grounds of the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi, is often considered his fresco masterpiece. The massive fresco is framed in quadri riportati and depicts Apollo in his Chariot preceded by Dawn (Aurora) bringing light to the world. The work is restrained in classicism, copying poses from Roman sarcophagi, and showing far more simplicity and restraint than Carracci's riotous Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne in the Farnese.
In 1630, the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII commissioned from Reni a painting of the Archangel Michael for the church of Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini.The painting, completed in 1636, gave rise to an old legend that Reni had represented Satan—crushed under St Michael's foot—with the facial features of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphilj in revenge for a slight.
Work in Naples and return to Bologna
Returning to Bologna more or less permanently after 1614, Reni established a successful and prolific studio there. And in 1611 he had already painted for San Domenico a superb Massacre of the Innocents, now in the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, which became an important reference for the French Neoclassic style, as well as a model for details in Picasso's Guernica.
After leaving Rome, Reni alternately painted in different styles, but displayed less eclectic tastes than many of Carracci's trainees. For example, his altarpiece for Samson Victorious formulates stylized poses, like those characteristic of Mannerism. In contrast, his Crucifixion and his Atlanta and Hipomenes depict dramatic diagonal movement coupled with the effects of light and shade that portray the more Baroque influence of Caravaggio. His turbulent yet realistic Massacre of the Innocents (Pinacoteca, Bologna) is painted in a manner reminiscent of a late Raphael.
In 1625, Prince Władysław Sigismund Vasa of Poland visited the artist's workshop in Bologna during his visit to Western Europe.The close rapport between the painter and the Polish prince resulted in the acquisition of drawings and paintings.
By the 1630s, Reni's painting style became looser, less impastoed, and dominated by lighter colors. A compulsive gambler, Reni was often in financial distress despite the steady demand for his paintings. According to his biographer Carlo Cesare Malvasia, Reni's need to recoup gambling losses resulted in rushed execution and multiple copies of his works produced by his workshop. Among the paintings of his last years are many unfinished works.
Reni's themes are mostly biblical and mythological. He painted few portraits; those of Sixtus V, and Cardinal Bernardino Spada are among the most noteworthy, along with one of his mother (in the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna) and a few self-portraits from both his youth and his old age.
Reni died in Bologna in 1642. He was buried there in the Rosary Chapel of the Basilica of San Domenico.
Reni was the most famous Italian artist of his generation.Through his many pupils, he had wide-ranging influence on later Baroque. In the center of Bologna he established two studios, teeming with nearly 200 pupils. His most distinguished pupil was Simone Cantarini, named Il Pesarese, who painted the portrait of his master now in the Bolognese Gallery.
Beyond Italy, Reni's influence was important in the style of many Spanish Baroque artists, such as Jusepe de Ribera and Murillo. But his work was particularly appreciated in France—Stendhal believed Reni must have had "a French soul"—and influenced generations of French artists such as Le Sueur, Le Brun, Vien, and Greuze; as well as on later French Neoclassic painters. In the 19th century, Reni's reputation declined as a result of changing taste—epitomized by John Ruskin's censorious judgment that the artist's work was sentimental and false. A revival of interest in Reni has occurred since 1954, when an important retrospective exhibition of his work was mounted in Bologna.
Name: Svetlana Zakharova
Full name: Svetlana Yuryevna Zakharova
birth place: Lutsk, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
birth date: 3 June 1979
Svetlana Zakharova was born in Lutsk, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union, on June 10, 1979. At the age of six, she was taken by her mother to learn folk dancing at a local studio, and by the age of 10, she had auditioned and was accepted into the Kyiv Choreography School.
In 1995, after six years at the Kyiv School, Zakharova entered the Young Dancers' Competition in St. Petersburg. The youngest contestant, she took second prize and was invited to continue her training in the graduating course of St Petersburg's Vaganova Academy. It was the first time in the school's history to allow a student to skip two grades.
After attending the pre-eminent Russian ballet school for one year, Zakharova joined the Mariinsky ballet in 1996.
Zakharova debuted with the Mariinsky Ballet in 1996, appearing as Maria with Ruben Bobovnikov, in Rostislav Zakharov's The Fountain of Bakhchisarai.
In 1997, after her first year with the Mariinsky, at 18, Zakharova was promoted to principal dancer.
By 2003, Zakharova moved to the Bolshoi Ballet.
From 1999 on Zakharova regularly performed as a guest soloist at the Paris Opera where she worked with French choreographer Pierre Lacotte who is a leading authority on classical ballet contributing to the career of Evgenia Obraztsova and Hannah O'Neill. Svetlana Zakharova was the first Russian principal dancer performing in Paris and became a world star as of 2000.
"In the flesh, it's hard not to be a little dazzled by Svetlana Zakharova's improbably fine features and impossibly big blue eyes – but these are merely the finishing touches of a long, strong, beautifully proportioned body that's one of the great balletic instruments of our times."
1997 : Vaganova-Prix Young Dancers Competition, Sankt-Peterburg (2nd prize)
1999 : Golden Mask for Serenade
2000 : Golden Mask for The Sleeping Beauty
2010 : Officier des Arts et des Lettres (France)
2005 : Prix Benois de la Danse for Hippolita (Titania) in A Midsummer Night's Dream
2006 : State Prize of the Russian Federation
2015 : Prix Benois de la Danse for Marguerite Gautier in "The Lady of the Camellias" by John Neumeier and Mekhmene-Banu in "Légende d'amour" by Yury Grigorovich.
akharova is married to Russian violinist Vadim Repin, and they have one child, daughter Anna (b. 2011). She had withdrawn from the Bolshoi Ballet tour to London in the summer of 2010 citing a hip injury; she was pregnant at the time. Zakharova returned to dancing, and performed in London on May 15, 2011, in a gala performance celebrating Soviet ballerina Galina Ulanova.