Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 1792 – 8 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets. American literary critic Harold Bloom describes him as "a superb craftsman, a lyric poet without rival, and surely one of the most advanced sceptical intellects ever to write a poem." A radical in his poetry as well as in his political and social views, Shelley did not achieve fame during his lifetime, but recognition of his achievements in poetry grew steadily following his death and he became an important influence on subsequent generations of poets including Browning, Swinburne, Hardy and Yeats.
Shelley’s critical reputation fluctuated in the twentieth century, but in recent decades he has achieved increasing critical acclaim for the sweeping momentum of his poetic imagery, his mastery of genres and verse forms, and the complex interplay of sceptical, idealist, and materialist ideas in his work. Among his best-known works are "Ozymandias" (1818), "Ode to the West Wind" (1819), "To a Skylark" (1820), and the political ballad “The Mask of Anarchy” (1819). His other major works include the verse drama The Cenci (1819) and long poems such as Alastor, or The Spirit of Solitude (1815), Julian and Maddalo (1819), Adonais (1821), Prometheus Unbound (1820)—widely considered his masterpiece--Hellas (1822), and his final, unfinished work, The Triumph of Life (1822).
Shelley also wrote prose fiction and a quantity of essays on political, social, and philosophical issues. Much of this poetry and prose was not published in his lifetime, or only published in expurgated form, due to the risk of prosecution for political and religious libel. From the 1820s, his poems and political and ethical writings became popular in Owenist, Chartist, and radical political circles and later drew admirers as diverse as Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi, and George Bernard Shaw.
Shelley's life was marked by family crises, ill health, and a backlash against his atheism, political views and defiance of social conventions. He went into permanent self-exile in Italy in 1818, and over the next four years produced what Leader and O'Neill call "some of the finest poetry of the Romantic period". His second wife, Mary Shelley, was the author of Frankenstein. He died in a boating accident in 1822 at the age of twenty-nine.
Percy Bysshe Shelley was born on 4 August 1792 at Field Place, Broadbridge Heath, near Horsham, West Sussex, England. He was the eldest son of Sir Timothy Shelley (1753–1844), a Whig Member of Parliament for Horsham and his wife, Elizabeth Pilfold (1763–1846), the daughter of a successful butcher. He had four younger sisters and one much younger brother. Shelley’s early childhood was sheltered and mostly happy. He was particularly close to his sisters and his mother, who encouraged him to hunt, fish and ride. At age six, he was sent to a day school run by the vicar of Warnham church, where he displayed an impressive memory and gift for languages.
In 1802 he entered the Syon House Academy of Brentford, Middlesex, where he was bullied and unhappy and sometimes responded with violent rage. He also began suffering from the nightmares, hallucinations and sleep walking that were to periodically afflict him throughout his life. Shelley developed an interest in science which supplemented his voracious reading of tales of mystery, romance and the supernatural. During his holidays at Field Place, his sisters were often terrified at being subjected to his experiments with gunpowder, acids and electricity.
In 1804, Shelley entered Eton College, a period which he later recalled with loathing. He was subjected to particularly severe mob bullying which the perpetrators called "Shelley-baits". His interest in the occult and science continued, and contemporaries describe him giving an electric shock to a master, blowing up a tree stump with gunpowder and attempting to raise spirits with occult rituals. In his senior years, Shelley came under the influence of a part-time teacher, Dr James Lind, who encouraged his interest in the occult and introduced him to liberal and radical authors. In his last term, his first novel Zastrozzi appeared and he had established a following among his fellow students.
Prior to enrolling for University College, Oxford in October 1810, Shelley completed Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire (written with his sister Elizabeth), the verse melodrama The Wandering Jew and the gothic novel St. Irvine; or, The Rosicrucian: A Romance (published 1811).
At Oxford Shelley attended few lectures, instead spending long hours reading and conducting scientific experiments in the laboratory he set up in his room. He met a fellow student, Thomas Jefferson Hogg, who became his closest friend. Shelley became increasingly politicised under Hogg's influence, developing strong radical and anti-Christian views which were dangerous in the reactionary political climate prevailing during Britain's war with Napoleonic France.
In the winter of 1810–1811, Shelley published a series of anonymous political poems and tracts, resulting in his expulsion from Oxford on 25 March 1811, along with Hogg. Hearing of his son's expulsion, Shelley's father threatened to cut all contact with Shelley unless he agreed to return home and study under tutors appointed by him. Shelley's refusal to do so led to a falling-out with his father.
In late December 1810, Shelley had met Harriet Westbrook, a pupil at the same boarding school as Shelley's sisters. They started to correspond frequently that winter. Shelley’s infatuation with Harriet developed in the months following his expulsion, when he was under severe emotional strain due to the conflict with his family, his bitterness over the breakdown of his romance with his cousin Harriet Grove, and his unfounded belief that he might be suffering from a fatal illness. Harriet Westbrook’s elder sister Eliza, to whom Harriet was very close, encouraged the young girl's romance with Shelley.
Shelley’s correspondence with Harriet intensified in July, while he was holidaying in Wales, and in response to her urgent pleas for his protection, he returned to London in early August. Putting aside his philosophical objections to matrimony, he left with the sixteen-year-old Harriet for Edinburgh on 25 August, and they were married there on the 28th.
Hearing of the elopement, Harriet’s father, John Westbrook, and Shelley’s father, Timothy, cut off the allowances of the bride and groom.
Surviving on borrowed money, Shelley tried to settle matters with his father, without any success, while Harriet's sister Eliza moved in with them.
Shelley wrote to William Godwin, author of Political Justice, offering himself as his devoted disciple. Godwin advised Shelley to reconcile with his father, become a scholar before he published anything else, and give up his avowed plans for political agitation in Ireland.
At this time Shelley was also involved in an intense platonic relationship with Elizabeth Hitchener, a 28-year-old unmarried schoolteacher of advanced views, with whom he had been corresponding. Hitchener, whom Shelley called the "sister of my soul" and "my second self", became his confidante and intellectual companion as he developed his views on politics, religion, ethics and personal relationships.
Shelley also met his father’s patron, Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, who helped secure the reinstatement of Shelley’s allowance. With Harriet’s allowance also restored, Shelley now had the funds for his Irish venture.
On 23 June Harriet gave birth to a girl, Eliza Ianthe Shelley, and in the following months the relationship between Shelley and his wife deteriorated. Shelley resented the influence Harriet’s sister had over her, while Harriet was alienated by Shelley’s close friendship with an attractive widow, Harriet Boinville, and her daughter Cornelia Turner. Following Ianthe’s birth, the Shelleys moved frequently across London, Wales, the Lake District, Scotland and Berkshire to escape creditors and search for a home.
In March 1814, Shelley remarried Harriet in London to settle any doubts about the legality of their Edinburgh wedding and secure the rights of their child. Nevertheless, the Shelleys lived apart for most of the following months, and Shelley reflected bitterly on: "my rash & heartless union with Harriet".
In May 1814, Shelley began visiting his mentor Godwin almost daily, and soon fell in love with Mary, the sixteen-year-old daughter of Godwin. Shelley and Mary declared their love for each other during a visit to her mother’s grave. When Shelley told Godwin that he intended to leave Harriet and live with Mary, his mentor banished him from the house and forbade Mary from seeing him. Shelley and Mary eloped to Europe on 28 July, taking Mary’s step-sister Claire Clairmont with them. Before leaving, Shelley had secured a loan of £3,000 but had left most of the funds at the disposal of Godwin and Harriet, who was now pregnant.
Shelly and Mary returned to England on 13 September, and Shelly spent the next few months trying to raise loans and avoid bailiffs. Mary was pregnant, lonely, depressed and ill. Her mood was not improved when she heard that on 30 November Harriet had given birth to Charles Bysshe Shelley, heir to the Shelley fortune and baronetcy.
In early January 1815, Shelley’s grandfather, Sir Bysshe died leaving an estate worth £220,000. However, the settlement of the estate, and a financial settlement between Shelley and his father (now Sir Timothy), wasn’t concluded until April the following year.
In February 1815, Mary gave premature birth to a baby girl who died ten days later, deepening her depression.
In August Shelley and Mary moved to Bishopsgate where Shelley worked on Alastor, a long poem in blank verse based on the myth of Narcissus and Echo. Alastor was published in an edition of 250 in early 1816 to poor sales and largely unfavourable reviews from the conservative press.
On 24 January 1816, Mary gave birth to William Shelley. Shelley was delighted to have another son, but was suffering from the strain of prolonged financial negotiations with his father, Harriet and William Godwin. Shelley showed signs of delusional behaviour and was contemplating an escape to the continent.
Mary’s step-sister Claire Clairmont, who had affair with Lord Byron, introduced him to Shelley in Geneva, where Shelley, Byron and the others engaged in discussions about literature, science and "various philosophical doctrines".
Shelley and Byron then took a boating tour around Lake Geneva, which inspired Shelley to write his "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty", his first substantial poem since Alastor.
In January 1817 Claire gave birth to a daughter by Byron who she named Alba, but later renamed Allegra in accordance with Byron's wishes. Shelley made provision for Claire and the baby in his will.
In December 1816 Shelley's estranged wife Harriet drowned herself in the Serpentine. Harriet, pregnant and living alone at the time, believed that she had been abandoned by her new lover. In her suicide letter she asked Shelley to take custody of their son Charles but to leave their daughter in her sister Eliza's care.
Shelley married Mary Godwin on 30 December, despite his philosophical objections to the institution.
In March 1817 the Shelleys moved to the village of Marlow, Buckinghamshire. The Shelley household included Claire and her baby Allegra, both of whose presence was resented by Mary. Shelley's generosity with money and increasing debts also led to financial and marital stress, as did Godwin's frequent requests for financial help.
On 2 September Mary gave birth to a daughter, Clara Everina Shelley. Soon after, Shelley left for London with Claire, which increased Mary's resentment towards her step-sister.
In December 1817 he wrote "Ozymandias", which is considered to be one of his finest sonnets.
On 12 March 1818 the Shelleys and Claire left England to escape its "tyranny civil and religious". A doctor had also recommended that Shelley go to Italy for his chronic lung complaint, and Shelley had arranged to take Claire's daughter, Allegra, to her father Byron who was now in Venice. On their journey to Venice, Shelly and Mary's baby daughter Clara became seriously ill on the journey and died on 24 September in Venice. Following Clara's death, Mary fell into a long period of depression and emotional estrangement from Shelley.
The Shelleys moved to Naples than Rome. In Rome, Shelley was in poor health, probably suffering from nephritis and tuberculosis which later was in remission. Nevertheless, he made significant progress on three major works: Julian and Maddalo, Prometheus Unbound and The Cenci. Julian and Maddalo is an autobiographical poem which explores the relationship between Shelley and Byron and analyses Shelley's personal crises of 1818 and 1819. The poem was completed in the summer of 1819, but was not published in Shelley's lifetime. Prometheus Unbound is a long dramatic poem inspired by Aeschylus's retelling of the Prometheus myth. It was completed in late 1819 and published in 1820. The Cenci is a verse drama of rape, murder and incest based on the story of the Renaissance Count Cenci of Rome and his daughter Beatrice. Shelley completed the play in September and the first edition was published that year. It was to become one of his most popular works and the only one to have two authorised editions in his lifetime.
Shelley's three-year-old son William died in June, probably of malaria. The new tragedy caused a further decline in Shelley's health and deepened Mary's depression.
On 12 November, Mary gave birth to a boy, Percy Florence Shelley in Florence. Around the time of Percy's birth, the Shelleys met Sophia Stacey, who was a ward of one of Shelley's uncles and was staying at the same pension as the Shelleys. Sophia, a talented harpist and singer, formed a friendship with Shelley while Mary was preoccupied with her newborn son. Shelley wrote at least five love poems and fragments for Sophia including "Song written for an Indian Air".
The Shelleys moved to Pisa in January 1820. Following the death of Keats in 1821, Shelley wrote Adonais, which Harold Bloom considers one of the major pastoral elegies. The poem was published in Pisa in July 1821, but sold few copies.
In November 1821 Byron moved into Villa Lanfranchi in Pisa, just across the river from the Shelleys. Byron became the centre of the "Pisan circle" which was to include Shelley, Thomas Medwin, Edward Williams and Edward Trelawny.
In the early months of 1822 Shelley became increasingly close to Jane Williams, who was living with her partner Edward Williams in the same building as the Shelleys. Shelley wrote a number of love poems for Jane.
Mary almost died from a miscarriage on 16 June, her life only being saved by Shelley's effective first aid. During this time, Shelley was writing his final major poem, the unfinished The Triumph of Life, which Harold Bloom has called "the most despairing poem he wrote".
On 1 July, Shelley and Edward Williams sailed in Shelley's new boat the Don Juan, custom-built for him in Genoa, to Livorno where Shelley met Leigh Hunt and Byron in order to make arrangements for a new journal, The Liberal. After the meeting, on 8 July, Shelley, Williams and their boat boy sailed out of Livorno for Lerici. A few hours later, the Don Juan and its inexperienced crew were lost in a storm.
Shelley's badly-decomposed body washed ashore at Viareggio ten days later and was identified by Trelawny from the clothing and a copy of Keats's Lamia in a jacket pocket. On 16 August, his body was cremated on a beach near Viareggio and the ashes were buried in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome.
Shelley's ashes were reburied in a different plot at the cemetery in 1823. His grave bears the Latin inscription Cor Cordium (Heart of Hearts), and a few lines of "Ariel's Song" from Shakespeare's The Tempest:
Nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea change
Into something rich and strange.
When Shelley's body was cremated on the beach, his "unusually small" heart resisted burning, possibly due to calcification from an earlier tubercular infection. Trelawny gave the scorched heart to Hunt, who preserved it in spirits of wine and refused to hand it over to Mary. But he finally relented and the heart was eventually buried either at St Peter's Church, Bournemouth or in Christchurch Priory.
Paul Poiret (20 April 1879 – 30 April 1944, Paris, France)was a leading French fashion designer, a master couturier during the first two decades of the 20th century. He was the founder of his namesake haute couture house. His contributions to his field have been likened to Picasso's legacy in 20th-century art.
Alexandre Paul Poiret né à Paris le 20 avril 1879 et mort dans la même ville le 30 avril 1944 est un grand couturier et parfumeur français.
Connu pour ses audaces, il est considéré comme un précurseur du style Art déco. Il crée la maison de couture qui porte son nom en 1903.
Paul Poiret was born on 20 April 1879 to a cloth merchant in the poor neighborhood of Les Halles, Paris. His older sister, Jeanne, would later become a jewelry designer. Poiret's parents, in an effort to rid him of his natural pride, apprenticed him to an umbrella maker. There, he collected scraps of silk left over from the cutting of umbrella patterns, and fashioned clothes for a doll that one of his sisters had given him.
While a teenager, Poiret took his sketches to Louise Chéruit, a prominent dressmaker, who purchased a dozen from him. Poiret continued to sell his drawings to major Parisian couture houses, until he was hired by Jacques Doucet in 1898. His first design, a red cloth cape, sold 400 copies. He became famous after designing a black mantle of tulle over a black taffeta, painted by the famous fan painter Billotey. The actress Réjane used it in a play called Zaza, the stage then becoming a typical strategy of Poiret's marketing practices.
In 1901, Poiret moved to the House of Worth, where he was responsible for designing simple, practical dresses, called "fried potatoes" by Gaston Worth because they were considered side dishes to Worth's main course of "truffles". The "brazen modernity of his designs," however, proved too much for Worth's conservative clientele. When Poiret presented the Russian Princess Bariatinsky with a Confucius coat with an innovative kimono-like cut, for instance, she exclaimed, "What a horror! When there are low fellows who run after our sledges and annoy us, we have their heads cut off, and we put them in sacks just like that." This reaction prompted Poiret to fund his own maison.
Poiret established his own house in 1903. In his first years as an independent couturier, he broke with established conventions of dressmaking and subverted other ones. In 1903, he dismissed the petticoat, and later, in 1906, he did the same with the corset. Poiret made his name with his controversial kimono coat and similar, loose-fitting designs created specifically for an uncorseted, slim figure.
Poiret designed flamboyant window displays and threw sensational parties to draw attention to his work. His instinct for marketing and branding was unmatched by any other Parisian designer, although the pioneering fashion shows of the British-based Lucile (Lady Duff Gordon) had already attracted tremendous publicity. In 1909, he was so famous, Margot Asquith, wife of British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, invited him to show his designs at 10 Downing Street. The cheapest garment at the exhibition was 30 guineas, double the annual salary of a scullery maid.
Poiret's house expanded to encompass interior decoration and fragrance. In 1911, he introduced "Parfums de Rosine," named after his daughter, becoming the first French couturier to launch a signature fragrance, although again the London designer Lucile had preceded him with a range of in-house perfumes as early as 1907.
In 1911 Poiret unveiled "Parfums de Rosine" with a flamboyant soiree held at his palatial home, attended by the cream of Parisian society and the artistic world. Poiret fancifully christened the event "la mille et deuxième nuit" (The Thousand and Second Night), inspired by the tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. His gardens were illuminated by lanterns, set with tents, and live, tropical birds. Poiret dressed as a Sultan bearing a whip, and Madame Poiret luxuriated in a golden cage. Poiret encouraged guests to dress in Orientalist styles, including harem pants and "lampshade" tunics similar to the one worn by his wife. Poiret the reigning sultan gifted each guest with a bottle of his new fragrance creation, appropriately named to befit the occasion, "Nuit Persane." His marketing strategy, played out as entertainment, became the talk of Paris. A second scent debuted in 1912 – "Le Minaret," again emphasizing the harem theme.
Again in 1911, publisher Lucien Vogel dared photographer Edward Steichen to promote fashion as a fine art in his work. Steichen responded by snapping photos of gowns designed by Poiret, hauntingly backlit and shot at inventive angles. These were published in the April 1911 issue of the magazine Art et Décoration. According to historian Jesse Alexander, the occasion is "now considered to be the first ever modern fashion photography shoot," in which garments were imaged as much for their artistic quality as their formal appearance.
A year later, Vogel began his renowned fashion journal La Gazette du Bon Ton, which showcased Poiret's designs, drawn by top illustrators, along with six other leading Paris designers – Louise Chéruit, Georges Doeuillet, Jacques Doucet, Jeanne Paquin, Redfern, and the House of Worth. However, notable couture names were missing from this brilliant assemblage, including such major tastemakers as Lucile, Jeanne Lanvin and the Callot Soeurs.
Also in 1911, Poiret launched the École Martine, a home decor division of his design house, named for his second daughter. The establishment provided artistically inclined, working-class girls with trade skills and income.
That same year Poiret leased part of the property at 109 Rue du Faubourg Saint Honoré to his friend Henri Barbazanges, who opened the Galerie Barbazanges to exhibit contemporary art. The building was beside Poiret's 18th century mansion at 26 Avenue d'Antin. Poiret reserved the right to hold two exhibitions each year. Artists included Pablo Picasso, who showed Les Demoiselles d'Avignon for the first time, Amedeo Modigliani, Moïse Kisling, Manuel Ortiz de Zárate and Marie Vassilieff. Poiret also arranged concerts of new music at the gallery, often in combination with exhibitions of new art. The 1916 Salon d'Antin included readings of poetry by Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, and performances of work by Erik Satie, Darius Milhaud, Igor Stravinsky and Georges Auric.
Early in World War I, Poiret left his fashion house to serve the military. When he returned in 1919, the business was on the brink of bankruptcy. New designers like Coco Chanel were producing simple, sleek clothes that relied on excellent workmanship. In comparison, Poiret's elaborate designs seemed dowdy and poorly manufactured. (Though Poiret's designs were groundbreaking, his construction was not – he aimed only for his dresses to "read beautifully from afar.")
In 1922, he was invited to New York to design costumes and dresses for Broadway stars. He took his top designer (France Martano) and an entourage with him, enjoying the elegant life at sea. New York City, however, was not home and he soon returned to Paris leaving his top designer there in his stead. Back in Paris, Poiret was increasingly unpopular, in debt, and lacking support from his business partners. He soon left the fashion empire he had established.
In 1929, the house was closed, its leftover stock sold by the kilogram as rags.
When Poiret died in 1944, his genius had been forgotten.
His road to poverty led him to odd jobs, including work as a street painter, selling drawings to customers of Paris cafes. At one time, the 'Chambre syndicale de la Haute Couture' discussed providing a monthly allowance to aid Poiret, an idea rejected by Worth, at that time president of the group. Only his friend and one of his right hand-designers from his pre-WWI era, France Martano (married name: Benureau), helped him in his era of poverty, when most of Parisian society had forgotten him. At the end of his life, he dined regularly in her family's Paris apartment and she ensured he was not wanting for food. His friend Elsa Schiaparelli prevented his name from encountering complete oblivion, and it was Schiaparelli who paid for his burial.
Paul Poiret's major contribution to fashion was his technique of draping fabric, an alternative to the more popular tailoring and use of patterns. Poiret was influenced by both antique and regional dress, and favoured clothing cut along straight lines and decorated with rectangular motifs. The structural simplicity of his clothing represented a "pivotal moment in the emergence of modernism" generally, and "effectively established the paradigm of modern fashion, irrevocably changing the direction of costume history.
Poiret is associated with the decline of corsetry in women's fashion and the invention of the hobble skirt. He once boasted "yes, I freed the bust, but I shackled the legs." Poiret was not the only one responsible for the change in women's supportive garments, however, and the diminished role of corsetry was a result of various factors. Poiret is often described as an Orientalist, and his creations often drew inspiration from various Eastern styles which were at odds with other fashionable Edwardian modes.
Fils d'Auguste Poiret (vers 1840-1903), marchand-drapier aux blés des Halles centrales, et de Louise Heinrich, son épouse, Paul Poiret est le second enfant et le seul garçon d'une fratrie de quatre enfants.
Il a trois sœurs. L'aînée, Jeanne (1871-1959) épousera le bijoutier René Boivin (1864-1917) ; la cadette, Germaine (1885-1971), modiste et artiste peintre, s'unira à un certain Bongard et tiendra de 1911 à 1925 au 5, rue de Penthièvre à Paris une maison de couture connue sous le nom de Jove, dans laquelle elle exposera des œuvres d'artistes de l'École de Paris ; la benjamine, Nicole (1887-1967) donnera à son époux, l'ébéniste André Groult (1884-1967) deux enfants : Benoîte Groult et Flora Groult.
Paul Poiret épouse le 5 octobre 1905 à Paris Denise Boulet (1886-1982). Le couple aura cinq enfants : Rosine (née en 1906), Perrine (vers 1910), Martine (1911) , Colin (1912) et Gaspard (vers 1913).
Paul Poiret est embauché comme dessinateur de mode chez Doucet en 1898, puis travaille chez Worth de 1901 à 1903.
Il ouvre sa maison de couture en septembre 1903 et habille Réjane, ce qui le lance. Il est le premier couturier, avec Madeleine Vionnet, à supprimer le corset en 1906, en créant des robes taille haute. Il devient ainsi un pionnier de l'émancipation féminine.
En 1908, il confie à Paul Iribe de dessin du catalogue Les Robes de Paul Poiret racontées par Paul Iribe. Le caractère novateur de l'ouvrage lui confère un grand succès.
En 1909, il fait l'acquisition de l'ancien hôtel du Gouverneur des pages (xviiie siècle), 107, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré, dont le jardin s'étend jusqu'à une grille de clôture à hauteur du 26, avenue d'Antin. Il confie l'aménagement de cet hôtel particulier en lieu de vie pour lui et sa famille, en lieu de travail et en siège pour sa maison de couture à l'architecte et décorateur ensemblier Louis Süe(1875-1968) qui opte pour le style néo-Louis XVI.
En 1910, l'orientalisme est à la mode. Les ballets russes et Léon Bakst triomphent à Paris. Poiret suit la tendance. Il achète les tissus colorés du Wiener Werkstätte à Vienne avec qui il entame une longue collaboration.
Le 24 juin 1911 Poiret donne la somptueuse fête costumée persane sur le thème La mille & deuxième nuit, à laquelle sont conviés 300 invités, essentiellement des artistes. La maison est fermée de tapisseries pour l'évènement qui fera date. Le premier salon est aménagé en « cour sablée où, sous un vélum bleu essor, des fontaines jaillissaient dans des vasques en porcelaines ». De nombreuses personnalités sont présentées, comme les peintres Luc-Albert Moreau et Guy-Pierre Fauconnet, l'actrice Régina Badet ou la princesse Murat, alors que le tragédien Édouard de Max conte Les Sept Vizirs.
Cette même année, Poiret lance Les Parfums de Rosine — du prénom de sa première fille — et devient le premier à imaginer le « parfum de couturier » qu'il conçoit en harmonie avec ses créations. Il ouvre un laboratoire au 39, rue du Colisée et une usine à Courbevoie incluant un atelier de verrerie et de cartonnerie pour le conditionnement. Les premières compositions sont imaginées par Maurice Schaller puis par Henri Alméras, mais Poiret s'implique personnellement. Jusqu'en 1929, ce sont 35 parfums qui sortent des usines, dont certains adoptent des noms singuliers comme Shakhyamuni (1913) ou Hahna l’Étrange Fleur (1919).
Toujours en 1911, il se diversifie dans les broderies et les imprimés avec les Ateliers de Martine — du prénom de sa deuxième fille —. Georges Lepape collabore à l'album Les Choses de Paul Poiret pour présenter ses robes. Il fait aussi appel à d'autres artistes peintres comme Raoul Dufy, Mario Simon, André Marty, etc.
En 1911, pendant son voyage en Russie, Poiret s'installe chez son amie et grande couturière russe Nadejda Lamanova dans son atelier au boulevard Tverskoï (Moscou) et donne trois défilés de mode.
Entre 1911 et 1917, il loue et restaure le pavillon du Butard à La Celle-Saint-Cloud et l'utilise comme résidence estivale et écrin de grandes fêtes, dont celle restée célèbre en date du 20 juin 1912 — « Festes de Bacchus » — à l'occasion de laquelle il crée un costume de bacchante : robe en mousseline de soie imprimée et un « châle Knossos » de Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo, portés par Denise Poiret. Isadora Duncan danse sur les tables au milieu de 300 invités et 900 bouteilles de champagne furent consommées jusqu'aux premières lueurs du jour.
Antérieurement, il avait fait construire à l'Île-Tudy la villa Kermaria où il organisa aussi des fêtes somptueuses ; les peintres Bernard Naudin et Raoul Dufy par exemple y séjournèrent, ainsi que le poète Max Jacob.
Il fait partie du cercle des Mortigny, fondé par Dimitri d'Osnobichine, qui regroupe de nombreux artistes et habitués de la vie parisienne, cercle qui fonctionne jusque dans les années 1950.
Poiret connaît le triomphe : il habille les comédiennes les plus en vue ; c'est lui qui gaine de soie la première vamp de l'histoire, Irma Vep, interprétée par Musidora sous la direction de Louis Feuillade.
Il habille également le Tout-Paris, aidé par sa femme Denise qui se fait ambassadrice de la marque. Il s'inspire de ses nombreux voyages pour créer des vêtements marqués par l'Orient, la Russie, l'Afrique du Nord.
En collaboration avec le peintre Raoul Dufy, il lance des imprimés audacieux. Plus tard, il crée la jupe-culotte et la jupe entravée, qui font scandale.
On lui doit la coupe du pantalon bleu horizon porté par les poilus à partir de fin 1916.
Après la Première Guerre mondiale, son étoile commence à pâlir. La clientèle le délaisse pour un style plus épuré.
La Maison Paul Poiret connaît ses premières difficultés financières en 1923, mais poursuit ses activités grâce au soutien financier de Georges Aubert.
En 1921-1923 il fait construire à Mézy-sur-Seine (Yvelines) la villa Paul Poiret, dessinée par Robert Mallet-Stevens, dont la construction est interrompue par les difficultés financières du couturier en 1923, et qui ne sera terminée qu'en 1932 par Elvire Popesco, qui l'avait rachetée deux ans auparavant.
Il possédait également la villa Casablanca à Biarritz, construite en 1922 par Guillaume Tronchet et rachetée ensuite par Jean Patou. Il possédait également la villa Treizaine à Gassin, sur la route de Saint-Tropez, où il peint.
Sa participation à l'Exposition internationale des Arts décoratifs et industriels modernes en 1925 est très remarquée : il présente ses collections sur trois péniches baptisées Délices, Amours et Orgues.
En 1927, il joue avec Colette dans sa pièce La Vagabonde.
En 1928, Paul Poiret publie Pan, Annuaire du luxe à Paris, aux Éditions Devambez, très bel annuaire qui réunit presque tous les grands noms du commerce de luxe de l'époque. Publié et conçu par lui, il est illustré de 116 planches en noir et en couleurs par les plus grands artistes contemporains. Cet album offre un panorama important sur la publicité des années 1920 : tailleurs, chapeliers, cannes, bottiers, couturiers, lingerie, fourrures, bijoux, la table, orfèvrerie, primeurs, vins, fleurs, galeries d'exposition, photographes, pharmaciens, restaurants, hôtels, cabarets, voyages, sports, bagages, plages, chevaux, chasse, pêche, etc.
Fin novembre 1929, la maison Paul Poiret ferme, du fait de la crise économique. les Parfums de Rosine sont rachetés par Oriza L. Legrand.
En 1930 il publie En habillant l'époque et invente la gaine, souple et confortable.
Il publie trois livres de mémoires et meurt en partie ruiné et oublié en 1944. Il repose désormais au cimetière de Montmartre à Paris.
Sa marque commerciale est un turban très enveloppant orné d'une aigrette, que son épouse rend célèbre.
Paloma Picasso (born Anne Paloma Ruiz-Picasso y Gilot on 19 April 1949), is a French and Spanish fashion designer and businesswoman, best known for her jewelry designs for Tiffany & Co. and her signature perfumes. She is the second child and only daughter of 20th-century artist Pablo Picasso and painter Françoise Gilot. She has an older brother Claude Picasso (b. 1947)
Paloma Picasso is represented in many of her father's works, such as Paloma with an Orange and Paloma in Blue.
Paloma Picasso also has half-brother Paulo Picasso (1921–1975), half-sister Maya (b. 1935) from his father's other relations, and another half-sister, Aurelia (b. 1956) from her mother's marriage to artist Luc Simon.
Paloma Picasso, née le 19 avril 1949 à Paris en France, est une créatrice de mode et une femme d’affaires franco-espagnole.
Paloma Picasso's jewelry career began in 1968, when she was a costume designer in Paris. Some rhinestone necklaces she had created from stones purchased at flea markets drew attention from critics. Encouraged by this early success, the designer pursued formal schooling in jewelry design. A year later, Ms. Picasso presented her first efforts to her friend, famed couturier Yves Saint Laurent, who immediately commissioned her to design accessories to accompany one of his collections.
By 1971, she was working for the Greek jewelry company Zolotas. But she briefly lost interest in designing following the death of her father Pablo Picasso in 1973. Meanwhile she played Countess Erzsébet Báthory in Polish filmmaker Walerian Borowczyk's erotic film, Immoral Tales (1973), receiving praise from the critics for her beauty. She has not acted since.
In 1978, Picasso married playwright and director Rafael Lopez-Cambil (also known as Rafael Lopez-Sanchez) in a black-and-white themed wedding. The couple later divorced.
In 1980 Picasso began designing jewelry for Tiffany & Co. of New York, together with Elsa Peretti and Jean Schlumberger (and later Frank Gehry)who worked with this American prominent jewelry retailer.
In 1984 she began experimenting with fragrance, creating the "Paloma" perfume for L'Oréal. In the New York Post Picasso described it as intended for "strong women like herself."A cosmetics and bath line including body lotion, powder, shower gel, and soap were produced in the same year.
In 1999, Picasso married Dr. Eric Thévenet, a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. Thévenet's interest in art and design has provided valuable insight toward the creation of Picasso's jewelry collections. Paloma Picasso and her husband live in Lausanne, Switzerland and in Marrakech, Morocco.
In 2010, Picasso celebrated her 30th anniversary with Tiffany and Co. by introducing a collection based upon her love of Morocco, called Marrakesh. In 2011, she debuted her Venezia collection, which celebrates the city of Venice and its motifs.
Two American museums have acquired Ms. Picasso's work for their permanent collections: Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History and The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago.
In 1988, Ms. Picasso was honored by The Fashion Group as one of the "Women Who Have Made an Extraordinary Impact on Our Industry."The Hispanic Designers Inc. presented her with its MODA award for design excellence.
Since 1983, she has been a member of the International Best Dressed List.
Picasso has a penchant for red; her red lipsticks were called "her calling cards". François Nars says about Paloma, "It's her signature, defining, one might say, the designer's red period."
Her fascination with red started at an early age, when she began wearing bright red lipstick at age 6. She has become recognizable by her red lipstick; When she feels like staying incognito, she simply avoids wearing her red lipstick: "Red lips have become my signature, so when I don’t want to be recognized, I don’t wear it."
Paloma Picasso est la fille de Pablo Picasso et de Françoise Gilot et la sœur cadette de Claude Picasso.
Très tôt, Paloma Picasso pose pour plusieurs œuvres de son père, telles que Paloma avec orange ou Paloma en bleu. Plus tard, elle se tourne vers le secteur de la mode et crée sa propre marque sous laquelle elle sort avec le groupe L'Oréal une licence de parfums, ainsi qu’une ligne de robes du soir. Elle conçoit également des bijoux pour Tiffany & Co. depuis 1980 et fréquente le mythique Studio 54.
Elle fait une apparition remarquée dans le film érotique du réalisateur polonais Walerian Borowczyk Immoral Tales - Les Contes immoraux (1974) dans le rôle de la comtesse Erzsébet Báthory.
Aujourd’hui, Paloma Picasso vit à Lausanne, en Suisse, et à Marrakech au Maroc.
Paloma Picasso épouse en 1978 à Paris le metteur en scène Rafael Lopez-Sanchez. La réception de mariage est donnée chez Karl Lagerfeld, en présence d'Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Bergé, Jacques de Bascher, Anna Piaggi, Xavier de Castella, Serge Lifar, Loulou de la Falaise, Thadée Klossowski, Caroline Loeb, Manolo Blahnik, Kenzo et d'autres personnalités à la mode de l'époque. La soirée continue ensuite au Palace de Fabrice Emaer. Le couple divorce en 1999 et Paloma se remarie avec le Docteur Éric Thévenet, ostéopathe.
Anne Paloma Ruiz-Picasso Gilot, (19 de abril de 1949, en Vallauris, Francia) más conocida como Paloma Picasso es una empresaria y diseñadora de moda franco-española, hija del artista Pablo Ruiz Picasso y de la pintora y escritora francesa Françoise Gilot. Sus otros hermanos son Claude Picasso, Paulo Picasso y Maya Picasso.
Su nombre, Paloma, se asocia con el símbolo que diseñó su padre para el Congreso Mundial de Partisanos por la Paz, celebrado en París el mismo año en que nació Paloma, y que puede ser encontrado en muchas de las obras de su padre.
Es especialmente conocida por sus diseños de joyas y la marca de perfume que lleva su nombre.
La carrera de Paloma Picasso en el mundo de la Joyería empezó en 1968, cuando era diseñadora de ropa en París. Los collares de fantasía que creaba para ser vendidos en pequeños mercados llamaron la atención de los críticos, llevándola a iniciar su formación en cursos de Joyería. Poco después, Yves Saint Laurent la invitó a diseñar complementos para una de sus colecciones, y en 1971 ya estaba trabajando para la Joyería griega Zolotas.
Diseñó también escenarios para el autor y director teatral Rafael López-Cambil (también conocido como Rafael López-Sánchez, con quién se casaría en 1978).
Tras la muerte de su padre en 1973, Paloma Picasso perdió el interés por el diseño durante un tiempo, y por aquel entonces interpretó el papel de la Condesa Erzsebet Báthory en la película erótica Cuentos inmorales, del director polaco Walerian Borowczyk, recibiendo elogios de la crítica por su belleza. No ha vuelto a actuar.
En 1980 Picasso comenzó a diseñar para Tiffany & Co. de Nueva York (lo que continua haciendo hasta la fecha). En sus primeras creaciones combinaba el color con una amplia variedad de piedras, con audaces diseños. Empezó a utilizar el símbolo de la paloma y el color rojo como su sello personal, algo que continuaría haciendo durante toda su carrera.
Con el tiempo, Paloma Picasso empezó a diversificar su actividad hacia nuevos campos del diseño, siendo así como en 1984 empezó a introducirse en el mundo de los perfumes, creando el muy exitoso "Paloma", para L'Oréal. Su marido, López-Cambil, potenció la imagen visual del producto con un empaquetado en rojo y negro y la característica forma del envase. En un artículo publicado en el New York Times Paloma definió su perfume como "el más adecuado para mujeres fuertes" como ella. Ese mismo año comenzó a fabricarse una línea de baño que incluía loción corporal, maquillaje, gel de baño y jabón.
En el año 2000, Paloma Picasso, famosa por sus atrevidos diseños, dio un giro a su carrera. Los colores primarios dieron paso al gris, al dorado y al ocre. Dicho cambio se vio también reflejado en la imagen personal de la diseñadora.