Robert Doisneau (14 April 1912 – 1 April 1994) was a French photographer. In the 1930s, he made photographs on the streets of Paris. He was a champion of humanist photography and together with Henri Cartier-Bresson a pioneer of photojournalism.
Doisneau is renowned for his 1950 image Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (The Kiss by the City Hall), a photograph of a couple kissing on a busy Parisian street.
He was appointed a Chevalier (Knight) of the Legion of Honour in 1984 by then French president, François Mitterrand.
Robert Doisneau, est un photographe humaniste français, né le 14 avril 1912 à Gentilly et mort le 1er avril 1994 à Montrouge.
Il est, aux côtés de Willy Ronis, d'Édouard Boubat, d'Izis, d'Émile Savitry ou d'Albert Monier l'un des principaux représentants du courant de la photographie humaniste française et l’un des photographes les plus populaires du xxe siècle.
Doisneau's father, a plumber, died in active service in World War I when Robert was about four. His mother died when he was seven. He then was raised by an unloving aunt.
At thirteen he enrolled at the École Estienne, a craft school from which he graduated in 1929 with diplomas in engraving and lithography. There he had his first contact with the arts, taking classes in figure drawing and still life.
When he was 16 he took up amateur photography, but was reportedly so shy that he started by photographing cobble-stones before progressing to children and then adults.
At the end of the 1920s Doisneau found work as a draughtsman (lettering artist) in the advertising industry at Atelier Ullmann (Ullmann Studio), a creative graphics studio that specialised in the pharmaceutical industry. Here he took an opportunity to change career by also acting as camera assistant in the studio and then becoming a staff photographer
The marvels of daily life are so exciting; no movie director can arrange the unexpected that you find in the street."
Doisneau was known for his modest, playful, and ironic images of amusing juxtapositions, mingling social classes, and eccentrics in contemporary Paris streets and cafes. Influenced by the work of André Kertész, Eugène Atget, and Henri Cartier-Bresson, he presented a charming vision of human frailty and life as a series of quiet, incongruous moments.
Doisneau's work gives unusual prominence and dignity to children's street culture, such as children at play in the city, unfettered by parents. His work treats their play with seriousness and respect.
In 1931 he left both the studio and advertising, taking a job as an assistant with the modernist photographer André Vigneau.
In 1932, he sold his first photographic story to Excelsior magazine.
In 1934, he began working as an industrial advertising photographer for the Renault car factory at Boulogne-Billancourt. Working at Renault increased Doisneau's interest in working with photography and people.
In 1936 Doisneau married Pierrette Chaumaison whom he had met in 1934 when she was cycling through a village where he was on holiday. They had two daughters, Annette (b. 1942) and Francine (b. 1947).
Five years later in 1939, he was dismissed because he was constantly late. In 1991 he said that the years at the Renault car factory marked "the beginning of his career as a photographer and the end of his youth."
He was forced to try freelance advertising, engraving, and postcard photography to earn his living. At that time the French postcard industry was the largest in Europe, postcards served as greetings cards as well as vacation souvenirs.
In 1939, he was later hired by Charles Rado of the Rapho photographic agency and traveled throughout France in search of picture stories. This is where he took his first professional street photographs.
Doisneau worked at the Rapho agency until the outbreak of World War II, whereupon he was drafted into the French army as both a soldier and photographer. He was in the army until 1940 and from then until the end of the war in 1945 used his draughtsmanship, lettering artistry, and engraving skills to forge passports and identification papers for the French Resistance.
Some of Doisneau's most memorable photographs were taken after the war. He returned to freelance photography and sold photographs to Life and other international magazines. He briefly joined the Alliance Photo Agency but rejoined the Rapho agency in 1946 and remained with them throughout his working life, despite receiving an invitation from Henri Cartier-Bresson to join Magnum Photos.
I don't photograph life as it is, but life as I would like it to be.
His photographs never ridiculed the subjects; thus he refused to photograph women whose heads had been shaved as punishment for sleeping with Germans.
In 1948 he was contracted by Vogue to work as a fashion photographer. The editors believed he would bring a fresh and more casual look for the magazine but Doisneau didn't enjoy photographing beautiful women in elegant surroundings; he preferred street photography. When he could escape from the studio, he photographed ever more in the streets of Paris.
Le Groupe des XV was established in 1946 in Paris to promote photography as art and drawing attention to the preservation of French photographic heritage, and Doisneau joined in 1950 and participated alongside Rene-Jacques, Willy Ronis, and Pierre Jahan. After the group was disbanded he joined the less exclusive and more militant Les 30 x 40, the Club Photographique de Paris.
In 1950 Doisneau created his most recognizable work for Life – Le Baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville), a photograph of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris, which became an internationally recognised symbol of young love in Paris.
The identity of the couple remained a mystery until 1992 when a couple who thought they were the protagonists in the photo sued the photographer. Doisneau won the lawsuit after revealing the real identity of the kissing couple.
The couple in Le baiser were Françoise Delbart, 20, and Jacques Carteaud, 23 at the time, both aspiring actors. They posed at the Place de la Concorde, the Rue de Rivoli and finally the Hôtel de Ville. The photograph was published on 12 June 1950, issue of Life.
In the same year, Doisneau gave Françoise an original print of the photograph, bearing Doisneau's signature and stamp, as part of the payment for her "work". In April 2005 she sold the print at auction for €155,000 to an unidentified Swiss collector via the Paris auctioneers Artcurial Briest-Poulain-Le Fur.
The 1950s were Doisneau's peak, but the 1960s were his wilderness years. In the 1970s Europe began to change and editors looked for new reportage that would show the sense of a new social era. All over Europe, the old-style picture magazines were closing as television received the public's attention. Doisneau continued to work, producing children's books, advertising photography, and celebrity portraits including Alberto Giacometti, Jean Cocteau, Fernand Léger, Georges Braque, and Pablo Picasso.
Doisneau worked with writers and poets such as Blaise Cendrars and Jacques Prévert, and he credited Prevert with giving him the confidence to photograph the everyday street scenes that most people simply ignored.
Doisneau was in many ways a shy and humble man, similar to his photography, still delivering his own work at the height of his fame. He chastised his younger daughter Francine for charging an "indecent" daily fee of £2,000 for his work on a beer advertising campaign – he wanted only the rate of an "artisan photographer".
From 1979 until his death, Doisneau's elder daughter Annette
Doisneau's wife Pierrette Chaumaison died in 1993 suffering from Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Robert Doisneau died six months later in 1994, having had a triple heart bypass and suffering from acute pancreatitis.
His elder daughter Annette(who worked as his assistant since 1979) said: "We won in the courts (meaning the lawsuit of the photo The Kiss in 1992), but my father was deeply shocked. He discovered a world of lies, and it hurt him. 'The Kiss' ruined the last years of his life. Add that to my mother suffering from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and I think it's fair to say he died of sadness."
He lived in southern Paris (Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Montrouge, and the 13th arrondissement) throughout his life. He is buried in the cemetery at Raizeux beside his wife.
The photography of Doisneau has had a revival since his death in 1994. Many of his portraits and photographs of Paris from the end of World War II through the 1950s have been turned into calendars and postcards, and have become icons of French life.
Maybe if I were 20, success would change me. But now I'm a dinosaur of photography.
Robert Doisneau est né dans le sud de la banlieue parisienne au sein d'une famille bourgeoise. Il étudie les Arts graphiques à l’École Estienne et obtient son diplôme de graveur et de lithographe en 1929.
En octobre 1929, il entre à l’atelier de Léon Ullmann en tant que dessinateur de lettres. Il y rencontre Lucien Chauffard qui dirige le studio photographique de l’atelier. Celui-ci l’initie à la photographie et l’oriente vers André Vigneau qui, à l’automne 1931, cherchait un assistant et avec lequel il découvre la Nouvelle Objectivité photographique.
La même année il rencontre Pierrette Chaumaison avec qui il se marie trois ans plus tard.
En 1932, il vend son premier reportage photographique, qui est diffusé dans l’Excelsior.
En 1934, Lucien Chauffard, le présente au chef du service photo du constructeur automobile Renault à Boulogne-Billancourt, qui l’embauche comme photographe industriel, mais, du fait de ses retards successifs (et après avoir, de son propre aveu, tenté de truquer ses cartes de pointage), il se fait renvoyer cinq ans plus tard, en 1939.
Toujours grâce à Lucien Chauffard, Doisneau rencontre peu avant le début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale la photographe Ergy Landau qui le présente à Charles Rado, le fondateur de l’agence Rapho. Son premier reportage, sur le canoë en Dordogne, est interrompu par la déclaration de guerre et la mobilisation générale.
Désormais sans emploi, Doisneau tente de devenir photographe illustrateur indépendant. Il sera un des plus prolifique collaborateurs de la revue artistique et littéraire Le Point fondée en 1936 par Pierre Betz et l’éditeur d’art Pierre Braun, pour laquelle il réalise ses premiers portraits de Picasso, Braque, Paul Léautaud.
Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Robert Doisneau devient un photographe indépendant en intégrant officiellement, dès 1946, l’agence Rapho.
Il se met alors à produire et à réaliser de nombreux reportages photographiques sur des sujets très divers : l’actualité parisienne, le Paris populaire, des sujets sur la province ou l’étranger (URSS, États-Unis, Yougoslavie, etc.). Certains de ses reportages paraîtront dans des magazines comme Life, Paris Match, Réalités, Point de vue, Regards, etc.
En 1947, Robert Doisneau rejoint le Groupe des XV aux côtés de René-Jacques, de Willy Ronis, de Pierre Jahan. La même année, il rencontre Robert Giraud, chez l'antiquaire Romi, c’est alors le début d'une longue amitié et d'une fructueuse collaboration. Doisneau publiera une trentaine d’albums dont La Banlieue de Paris (Seghers, 1949), avec des textes de Blaise Cendrars.
Il travaillera pour Vogue, de 1948 à 1953 en qualité de collaborateur permanent.
Il est aussi ami de Jacques Yonnet et ses photographies illustrent son fameux Enchantements sur Paris (Denoël, 1954) devenu La ville des maléfices (Biblio).
Le photographe à effectué de nombreuses escapades en Limousin. Durant son enfance en Corrèze, puis lors de séjours à Saint-Céré dans le Lot des années 1930 à 1991.
En passant par le Limousin, Robert Doisneau a saisi avec son Rollefleix des images de la fête de la quintaine de Saint-Léonard en 1951. À Aubusson, il se passionne pour le travail des lissiers. Il exalte la noblesse du travail dans ses clichés des ouvriers porcelainiers des usines Tharaud à Limoges. Il aimait aussi retrouver ses deux complices limousins, le journaliste et écrivain Robert Giraud, et le peintre Jean-Joseph Sanfourche.
Son talent de photographe sera récompensé à diverses reprises : le prix Kodak en 1947, le prix Niépce en 1956.
En 1960, Doisneau monte une exposition au Musée d'art contemporain de Chicago. En 1975, il est l'invité d'honneur du festival des Rencontres d'Arles (France). Une exposition lui y est consacrée.
Il recevra d'autres prix pour son travail : le prix du livre des Rencontres d'Arles pour L'Enfant et la Colombe (1979) et pour Trois secondes d'éternité en 1980, chez Contrejour, le Grand Prix national de la photographie en 1983 et le prix Balzac en 1986.
En 1986, le festival des Rencontres d'Arles présente une exposition intitulée De Vogue à Femmes, Robert Doisneau.
En 1992, Doisneau présente une rétrospective au Modern Art Oxford (en). Ce sera la dernière exposition de ses œuvres organisée de son vivant. En 1994, le festival des Rencontres d'Arles présentait Hommage à Robert Doisneau.
Robert Doisneau est l'un des photographes français les plus connus à l'étranger notamment grâce à des photographies comme Le Baiser de l'hôtel de ville. Ses très nombreuses photographies en noir et blanc des rues de Paris d'après-guerre et de sa banlieue et de photos d'écoliers ont fait sa renommée.
Doisneau est « un passant patient » qui conserve toujours une certaine distance vis-à-vis de ses sujets. Il guette l'anecdote, la petite histoire. Ses photographies sont souvent empreintes d'humour mais également de nos
Profile Roger Vadim
Roger Vadim Plemiannikov (26 January 1928 – 11 February 2000) was a French screenwriter, film director and producer, as well as an author, artist and occasional actor. His best-known works are visually lavish films with erotic qualities, such as And God Created Woman (1956), Barbarella (1968), and Pretty Maids All in a Row (1971).
Roger Vadim Plémiannikov, dit Roger Vadim, né le 26 janvier 1928 dans le 5e arrondissement de Paris et mort le 11 février 2000 dans le 13e arrondissement, est un réalisateur, scénariste, acteur, romancier et poète français.
Passionné de cinéma, de littérature, de musique, mais également célèbre « homme à femmes », il a aussi écrit et réalisé des films pour mettre en scène certaines de ses compagnes et en faire des stars du grand écran, notamment Brigitte Bardot, Annette Stroyberg, Catherine Deneuve et Jane Fonda.
Vadim was born Roger Vadim Plemiannikov in Paris. His father, Igor Nikolaevich Plemiannikov, a White Russian military officer and pianist, had emigrated from imperial Russia and became a naturalized French citizen. He was a vice consul of France to Egypt, stationed in Alexandria, later posting to Mersin, Turkey as a consul. Vadim's mother, Marie-Antoinette was a French actress. Although Vadim lived as a diplomat's child in Northern Africa and the Middle East in his early youth, the death of his father when Vadim was nine years old caused the family to return to France.
Vadim studied journalism and writing at the University of Paris, without graduating.
At age 19, he became assistant to film director Marc Allégret, whom he met while working at the Theatre Sarah Bernhardt, and for whom he worked on several screenplays.
It was when he worked for Marc Allégret, that he discovered Brigitte Bardot and convinced the latter to audition her. Vadim and Bardot fell in love, and they waited until 1952 when Brigitte Bardot was 18 years old to get married in Paris.
In 1956, Vadim created And God Created Woman for his young wife, which was also his first film as a director. The film was doing ok in France, but achieved huge success in the United States and around the world, establishing Bardot as a world icon.
During the filming, however, Brigitte Bardot fell in love with her co-star Jean-Louis Trintignant, and left Roger Vadim. The couple divorced in December 1957, just 5 years after their marriage.
After Brigitte Bardot, Roger Vadim will repeat several times his patter of falling love with a woman and make her his protagonist in his film, although it seems the love lasts just a little big longer than the film.
The first of such women was Annette Stroyberg(7 December 1936-12 December 2005), a Danish model. Roger Vadim married her in June 1958 and put her into his second most famous film Les liaisons dangereuses (1959) together with Jeanne Moreau and Gérard Philipe (in his final film). The film did not succeed, and the couple divorced in 1961, shortly after the release of the film.
Then it was Catherine Deneuve whom Roger Vadim met in 1961 when she was filming the anthology film Tales of Paris (1962), and who starred in his films like And Satan Calls the Turns (1962) and Vice and Virtue (1963), but they left each other in 1963.
Then Jane Fonda. He met the American actress in 1964 and married her in 1967. He directed her in The Game Is Over (1966), based on a book by Émile Zola, then in a science fiction sex comedy, Barbarella (1968). Both films failed, as his marriage to Jane Fonda. They divorced in 1972.
In 1976, Roger Vadim directed Une femme fidèle, a Madame Bovary sort of period drama, played by Dutch model and actress Sylvia Kristel who has already become internationally famous for starring in erotic French film Emmanuelle released in 1974. But the film did not succeed either.
In 1988, Vadim attempted to recapture his former success with a new version of And God Created Woman (1988), with Rebecca de Mornay. Very different from the original – it only really used the same title – it failed critically and commercially.
After that, Roger Vadim turned his attention to TV, and it was in the world of TV, he found his last wife, French actress Marie-Christine Barrault and serenity. Like he did with all of his previous women, he became the director of Marie-Christine Barrault as well, both in theatre and TV, including Un coup de baguette magique (1997), which was last time Vadim worked as a director.
Roger Vadim was not just a woman's man, but also a renaissance man.
In addition to his theatre and film work, Roger Vadim also wrote several books, including the memoirs "Memoires du Diable", "Le Gout du Bonheur: Souvenirs 1940–1958" and an autobiography, D'une étoile à l'autre (From One Star to the Next) as well as a tell-all about his most famous exes, Bardot, Deneuve & Fonda: My Life with the Three Most Beautiful Women in the World, published in 1986. "My attitude is that if this book makes me a little money it will be a tiny compensation for all the money I helped those actresses make", Vadim explained. He also wrote several plays and books of fiction, including L'Ange Affame.
Roger Vadim died of cancer at age 72 on 11 February 2000. Ex-wives Bardot, Fonda, Schneider and Stroyberg were all in attendance at his funeral. He is buried at St. Tropez Cemetery.
Roger Vadim est le fils d'Igor Nicolaïevitch Plémiannikov (1904-1938), d'une famille de la noblesse russe, que la tradition familiale rattache à Gengis Khan. Engagé dans l'armée Wrangel à quatorze ans pour combattre les bolcheviques, Igor est fait prisonnier et condamné à mort ; parvenant à s'enfuir la veille de son exécution, Il arrive en France en octobre 1924 et est naturalisé français en 1928. Il est nommé vice-consul de France en Égypte, où Roger Vadim passe sa petite enfance dans un univers romanesque.
Lors de sa naissance, ses parents n'étaient pas mariés, son père étant alors toujours dans les liens d'un premier mariage avec une Russe.
Fin 1938, il a 10 ans lorsque son père meurt, sa mère, lui et sa sœur Hélène s'installent en location dans une ferme des Gets, mais puis retourne s'installer à Paris.
En 1947, à 19 ans, il abandonne sa scolarité à l’Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) et préfère la vie d'artiste peintre ou d'acteur à Paris.
L'écrivain André Gide lui fait connaître le réalisateur Marc Allégret dont il devient l'assistant tout en étant journaliste et reporter-photographe à Paris Match jusqu'en 1956.
En 1949, il remarque Brigitte Bardot, âgée alors de 15 ans, en couverture du magazine Elle, et demande à Marc Allégret de la faire auditionner pour un rôle. Le coup de foudre est immédiat et réciproque.
En 1950, le jeune couple d'amoureux (il a 22 ans, elle en a 16), se retrouve pour des vacances d'été à Cap Myrtes près de Saint-Tropez. Pour se conformer aux vœux de M. et Mme Bardot, ils doivent attendre les 18 ans de Brigitte Bardot pour pouvoir se marier. En 1952, la jeune actrice, Brigitte Bardot, fête ses 18 ans et, le 19 décembre 1952, les deux amoureux peuvent enfin se marier à la mairie puis le 21 à l'église.
Vadim s'ingénie à lancer sa jeune épouse, Bardot dans le monde du cinéma. Il obtient pour elle une participation dans Futures vedettes, réalisé par son mentor Marc Allégret.
En 1956, à 28 ans, il écrit et réalise son premier film, Et Dieu… créa la femme, pour sa femme qui a 22 ans et joue presque son propre rôle face à Jean-Louis Trintignant, complice régulier de Vadim et qui obtient grâce à ce film la reconnaissance publique.
Juliette est une jeune femme ingénue totalement insouciante, au sommet de sa beauté. Elle fait exploser les cœurs et les mœurs de tous les hommes du village de pêcheurs de Saint-Tropez où elle vit. Elle ne pense qu'à s'amuser et aux plaisirs de la vie dans une communauté traditionnellement attachée aux bonnes mœurs et au travail.
Le film obtient un succès relatif en France, mais triomphe aux États-Unis. Brigitte Bardot devient un mythe vivant, un modèle social et un sex-symbol international. Le film déchaîne autant de passions, et d'idolâtrie, que de scandale et de colère contre l'immoralité, et fait du petit village de pêcheurs de Saint-Tropez un endroit de légende par la seule présence de Bardot. Brigitte étant tombée amoureuse de son partenaire Jean-Louis Trintignant, le couple Bardot-Vadim divorce en décembre 1957.
Vadim tournera quatre autres films avec Brigitte en 1958, 1961, 1962 et 1973, sans jamais retrouver l'éclat du premier malgré la recherche de sujets à scandales :par exemple dans Don Juan 73 où Bardot partage une scène d'amour avec Jane Birkin.
En 1959, il tourne l'adaptation du roman de Choderlos de Laclos écrite par Roger Vailland, Les Liaisons dangereuses 1960 avec Gérard Philipe, Jeanne Moreau, Jean-Louis Trintignant, et Annette Stroyberg(1936-2005), rencontrée lors du tournage des Bijoutiers du clair de lune, qu'il épouse, le 17 juin 1958, et qui lui donnera une fille.
Espérant le même succès avec Annette Stroyberg dans Les Liaisons dangereuses 1960, qu'avec Bardot, il est déçu, la critique traditionnelle ne lui pardonne pas ce nouvel écart aux bonnes mœurs. Vadim et Annette divorcent en 1960 après avoir tourné ensemble Et mourir de plaisir.
En 1961, il a 33 ans et rencontre Catherine Deneuve qui en a 17, sur le tournage du film Les Parisiennes, de Marc Allégret, film dont il a écrit le sketch Sophie.
Ils tombent amoureux en une soirée, et se mettent en ménage; un fils, Christian Vadim, naît le 18 juin 1963.
Vadim offre à Deneuve son premier grand rôle sur le thème du marquis de Sade et du nazisme dans Le Vice et la Vertu, en 1963, où elle est opposée à Annie Girardot. Le film, écrit par Roger Vailland, est boudé par le public et la critique.
En 1964, à 36 ans, il éprouve un nouveau coup de foudre pour l'actrice américaine Jane Fonda, âgée de 27 ans, sur le plateau de La Ronde d'après Arthur Schnitzler. Ils se marient le 18 mai 1967 à Saint-Ouen-Marchefroy et auront une fille, Vanessa.
Le metteur en scène fait tourner sa nouvelle épouse dans La Curée en compagnie de Michel Piccoli, d'après Émile Zola - le film est un échec - et dans Barbarella, science-fiction érotique d'après la bande dessinée de Jean-Claude Forest. Ce film est le dernier succès de Vadim au cinéma.
Jane quitte Vadim pour s'engager dans une association contre la Guerre du Viêt Nam en retournant vivre aux États-Unis. Ils divorcent en 1972.
En 1972, à 44 ans, alors qu'il vient de réaliser Si tu crois fillette avec Rock Hudson et Angie Dickinson, il rencontre Catherine Schneider, fille de Charles Schneider et de Lilian Constantini, héritière de l’empire sidérurgique Schneider, avec qui il a un fils Vania. Ils se marient en 1975, mais divorcent deux ans plus tard en 1977.
Après ce quatrième divorce, Vadim débute à la télévision avec Bonheur, Impair et Passe, nouvelle adaptation de Françoise Sagan au casting trois étoiles : Danielle Darrieux, Ludmila Mikaël et Philippe Léotard.
En 1980, à 52 ans, il rencontre Ann Biderman, une scénariste américaine, âgée de 29 ans, ils se fiancent en 1984, mais se séparent en 1986.
En 1988, il réalise un remake de son plus grand succès, And God Created Woman (1988), avec Rebecca De Mornay pour succéder à Brigitte Bardot.
En 1990, à 62 ans, il trouve enfin la sérénité auprès de la comédienne Marie-Christine Barrault, qu'il rencontre au Festival du film policier de Cognac, où ils sont tous les deux membres du jury. Après avoir vécu quelque temps ensemble, ils se marient le 21 décembre 1990.
Vadim met en scène Marie-Christine Barrault pour le théâtre (Même heure l'année prochaine, Enfin seuls !) et pour la télévision dans Amour fou, La Nouvelle tribu, Mon père avait raison et dans Un coup de baguette magique, sa dernière réalisation.
Toute sa vie, il restera fidèle aux Gets où il tourne certains extérieurs de ses films Les Liaisons dangereuses, L'Amour fou et Hellé et où il vécut avec Marie-Christine Barrault. En 1992, il y a acheté une ancienne ferme au Plan-Ferraz.
En 1993, Vadim passe à l'écriture de quatre romans, dont Le Goût du bonheur, où il met en scène, comme à son habitude, ses femmes,
Gravement malade depuis plusieurs mois, il meurt le 11 février 2000 à Paris à l'hôpital, à 72 ans, des suites d'un cancer du thymus.
Il est ensuite enterré en présence de ses cinq ex-compagnes au cimetière marin du village de Saint-Tropez, à quelques mètres du rivage, face au golfe de Saint-Tropez et de « la Madrague », propriété de Brigitte Bardot.
Perhaps if we thought for a second of the classic, simple elegance of the Spanish lady it might help us to be "simply" ourselves.
Profile of Rita Hayworth
Margarita Carmen Hayworth (born Margarita Carmen Cansino; October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987) was an American actress, dancer, and producer. She achieved fame during the 1940s as one of the era's top stars, appearing in 61 films over 37 years. The press coined the term "The Love Goddess" to describe Hayworth after she had become the most glamorous screen idol of the 1940s. She was the top pin-up girl for GIs during World War II.
Hayworth is perhaps best known for her performance in the 1946 film noir Gilda in which she played the femme fatale in her first major dramatic role. Fred Astaire, with whom she made two films, once called her his favorite dance partner. She is listed as one of the top 25 female motion picture stars of all time in the American Film Institute's survey, AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars.
In 1980, Hayworth was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, which contributed to her death at age 68. The public disclosure and discussion of her illness drew attention to Alzheimer's, which was largely unknown by most people at the time, and helped to increase public and private funding for Alzheimer's research.
Biography of Rita Hayworth
Hayworth was born as Margarita Carmen Cansino in Brooklyn, New York, the oldest child of two dancers. Her father, Eduardo Cansino, was from a little town near Seville, Spain.
Her mother, Volga Hayworth, was an American of Irish and English descent who had performed with the Ziegfeld Follies.
Margarita's father wanted her to become a professional dancer, while her mother hoped she would become an actress. Her paternal grandfather, Antonio Cansino, was renowned as a classical Spanish dancer. He popularized the bolero, and his dancing school in Madrid was world-famous.
She attended dance classes every day for a few years in a Carnegie Hall complex, where she was taught by her uncle.
In 1926, at the age of eight, she was featured in La Fiesta, a short film for Warner Bros.
In 1927, her father took the family to Hollywood and established his own dance studio there, where he taught such stars as James Cagney and Jean Harlow.
In 1931, Eduardo Cansino started to take his 12-year-old daughter to dance in nightclubs and bars in Tijuana, Mexico, as she was too young to work in Los Angels under its law. It is in one of the bars the Caliente club, Winfield Sheehan, the head of the Fox Film Corporation, saw her dancing. He arranged for Hayworth to do a screen test Amman’s signed her for a short-term, six-month contract at Fox, under the name Rita Cansino, the first of two name changes during her film career.
During her time at Fox, Hayworth was billed as Rita Cansino and appeared in unremarkable roles, often cast as the exotic foreigner.
Sheehan was grooming her for the lead in the 1936 Technicolor film Ramona, hoping to establish her as Fox Film's new Dolores del Río.
By the end of her six-month contract, Fox had merged into 20th Century Fox, with Darryl F. Zanuck serving as the executive producer who gave Loretta Young the lead in Ramona, and did not renew Cansino's contract.
Sensing her screen potential, salesman and promoter Edward C. Judson got freelance work for her in several small-studio films and married get in Las Vegas. Rita was 18 years old.
Eventually Columbia Pictures Studio head Harry Cohn signed her to a seven-year contract, and suggested a name change: Rita Cansino thus became Rita Hayworth, with a darker hair Color and higher hairline.
Cohn began to build up Hayworth in 1940 in several feature movies, but she triumphed in the musical You'll Never Get Rich (1941) opposite Fred Astaire.
It was one of the highest-budgeted films Columbia had ever made, and the picture was so successful, the studio produced and released another Astaire-Hayworth picture the following year, You Were Never Lovelier.
In August 1941, Hayworth was featured in an iconic Life photo in which she posed in a negligee with a black lace bodice. Bob Landry's photo made Hayworth one of the top two pin-up girls of the World War II years (the other was Betty Grable) For two years, Hayworth's photograph was the most requested pin-up photograph in circulation. (In 2002, the satin nightgown Hayworth wore for the photo sold for $26,888.)
She divorced Edward C. Judson in 1942 and married Orson Wells, American actor, director and producer, the next year. She had her first child, a daughter named Rebecca in December 1944.
Hayworth had top billing in one of her best-known films, the Technicolor musical Cover Girl, released in 1944. The film established her as Columbia's top star of the 1940s, and it gave her the distinction of being the first of only six women to dance on screen with both Gene Kelly and Fred Astaire.
Her sexy, glamorous appeal was most noted in Charles Vidor's film noir Gilda (1946) with Glenn Ford, which caused censors some consternation. The role, in which Hayworth wore black satin and performed a legendary one-glove striptease, "Put The Blame On Mame", made her into a cultural icon as a femme fatale.
In real life, Rita Hayworth is a twice divorced woman now: On November 10, 1947, she was granted a divorce from Orson Wells that became final the following year.
In 1948, at the height of her fame, Hayworth traveled to Cannes and was introduced to Prince Aly Khan. They began a year-long courtship, and were married on May 27, 1949. Hayworth left Hollywood and sailed for France, breaking her contract with Columbia.
On December 28, 1949, Hayworth gave birth to the couple's only daughter, Princess Yasmin Aga Khan.
Though Hayworth was anxious to start a new life abroad, away from Hollywood, Aly Khan's flamboyant lifestyle and duties proved too difficult for Hayworth. She struggled to fit in with his family. Aly Khan and his family were heavily involved in horse racing, owning and racing horses. Hayworth had no interest in the sport, but became a member of the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club anyway.
She also found it difficult to learn French. What is more, she suspected Aly Khan, most famous playboy of his time, being unfaithful to her.
In 1951, Hayworth set sail with her two daughters for New York. Although the couple did reconcile for a short time, they divorced in 1953.
Rita Hayworth was forced to return to Hollywood, and to Columbia. She starred in a string of successful pictures there and left Columbia soon after Kim Novak became Columbia's top female star.
Since then, although she continued to work until the early 70s, the peak time of Hayworth’s career has passed. Her last film was the Wrath of God(1972), a western.
Her private life did not bring her the happiness Hayworth has been searching. Her last two marriages to Argentinian singer Dick Haymes and film producer James Hill both turned out to be a failure, with neither of the marriage lasting more than three years.
And her two famous ex husbands Orson Wells and Prince Aly Khan both went on to have fulfilling (or at least rich full) emotional life. Orson Wells married Italian aristocratic actress Paola Mori in 1955, and stay married to her at the time of his death in 1985 although he was also involved with his long time assistant.
And Prince Aly Khan, after involving with several women including another Hollywood star Gene Tierney, was engaged with the first Fr much super model Bettina Graziani, and was with her at the time of his untimely death due to a car accident in 1960.
Arita Hayworth has long suffered from alcoholism. As early as in the 1940s when she was still married to Orson Wells, he noted her problem with drinking. It got worse as the years pass and ultimately affected her career as an actress.
But Hayworth's alcoholism hid symptoms of what was eventually understood to be Alzheimer’s disease, which she was diagnosed in 1981. When the diagnosis when public, Rita Hayworth became the first public face of this disease.
Rita Hayworth lapsed into a semicoma in February 1987. She died at age 68 from complications associated with Alzheimer's disease three months later on May 14, 1987, at her home in Manhattan.
Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth and Prince Ali Khan, created Alzheimer's Association in honor of her mother.